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**2 Chapter Descriptive Statistics 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.**

All rights reserved. 1 of 149

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**Frequency Distributions and Their Graphs**

Section 2.1 Frequency Distributions and Their Graphs © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 of 149

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**Section 2.1 Objectives Construct frequency distributions**

Construct frequency histograms, frequency polygons, relative frequency histograms, and ogives © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 of 149

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**Frequency Distribution**

A table that shows classes or intervals of data with a count of the number of entries in each class. The frequency, f, of a class is the number of data entries in the class. Class Frequency, f 1 – 5 5 6 – 10 8 11 – 15 6 16 – 20 21 – 25 26 – 30 4 Class width 6 – 1 = 5 Lower class limits Upper class limits © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 of 149

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**Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

Decide on the number of classes. Usually between 5 and 20; otherwise, it may be difficult to detect any patterns. Find the class width. Determine the range of the data. Divide the range by the number of classes. Round up to the next convenient number. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 of 149

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**Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

Find the class limits. You can use the minimum data entry as the lower limit of the first class. Find the remaining lower limits (add the class width to the lower limit of the preceding class). Find the upper limit of the first class. Remember that classes cannot overlap. Find the remaining upper class limits. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 of 149

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**Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

Make a tally mark for each data entry in the row of the appropriate class. Count the tally marks to find the total frequency f for each class. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 of 149

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**Example: Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

The following sample data set lists the prices )in dollars) of 30 portable global positioning system (GPS) navigators. Construct a frequency distribution that has seven classes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

Number of classes = 7 (given) Find the class width Round up to 56 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

Use 59 (minimum value) as first lower limit. Add the class width of 56 to get the lower limit of the next class. = 115 Find the remaining lower limits. Lower limit Upper limit 59 115 171 227 283 339 395 Class width = 56 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

The upper limit of the first class is 114 (one less than the lower limit of the second class). Add the class width of 56 to get the upper limit of the next class = 170 Find the remaining upper limits. Lower limit Upper limit 59 114 115 170 171 226 227 282 283 338 339 394 395 450 Class width = 56 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Frequency Distribution**

Make a tally mark for each data entry in the row of the appropriate class. Count the tally marks to find the total frequency f for each class. Class Tally Frequency, f 59 – 114 IIII 5 115 – 170 IIII III 8 171 – 226 IIII I 6 227 – 282 283 – 338 II 2 339 – 394 I 1 395 – 450 III 3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 of 149

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**Determining the Midpoint**

Midpoint of a class Class Midpoint Frequency, f 59 – 114 5 115 – 170 8 171 – 226 6 Class width = 56 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 of 149

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**Determining the Relative Frequency**

Relative Frequency of a class Portion or percentage of the data that falls in a particular class. Class Frequency, f Relative Frequency 59 – 114 5 115 – 170 8 171 – 226 6 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 of 149

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**Determining the Cumulative Frequency**

Cumulative frequency of a class The sum of the frequency for that class and all previous classes. Class Frequency, f Cumulative frequency 59 – 114 5 115 – 170 8 171 – 226 6 5 + 13 + 19 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 of 149

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**Expanded Frequency Distribution**

Class Frequency, f Midpoint Relative frequency Cumulative frequency 59 – 114 5 86.5 0.17 115 – 170 8 142.5 0.27 13 171 – 226 6 198.5 0.2 19 227 – 282 254.5 24 283 – 338 2 310.5 0.07 26 339 – 394 1 366.5 0.03 27 395 – 450 3 422.5 0.1 30 Σf = 30 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 of 149

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**Graphs of Frequency Distributions**

Frequency Histogram A bar graph that represents the frequency distribution. The horizontal scale is quantitative and measures the data values. The vertical scale measures the frequencies of the classes. Consecutive bars must touch. data values frequency © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 of 149

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**Class Boundaries Class boundaries**

The numbers that separate classes without forming gaps between them. The distance from the upper limit of the first class to the lower limit of the second class is 115 – 114 = 1. Half this distance is 0.5. Class Boundaries Frequency, f 59 – 114 5 115 – 170 8 171 – 226 6 58.5 – 114.5 First class lower boundary = 59 – 0.5 = 58.5 First class upper boundary = = 114.5 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 of 149

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**Class Boundaries Class Class boundaries Frequency, f 59 – 114**

58.5 – 114.5 5 115 – 170 114.5 – 170.5 8 171 – 226 170.5 – 226.5 6 227 – 282 226.5 – 282.5 283 – 338 282.5 – 338.5 2 339 – 394 338.5 – 394.5 1 395 – 450 394.5 – 450.5 3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 of 149

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**Example: Frequency Histogram**

Construct a frequency histogram for the Global Positioning system (GPS) navigators. Class Class boundaries Midpoint Frequency, f 59 – 114 58.5 – 114.5 86.5 5 115 – 170 114.5 – 170.5 142.5 8 171 – 226 170.5 – 226.5 198.5 6 227 – 282 226.5 – 282.5 254.5 283 – 338 282.5 – 338.5 310.5 2 339 – 394 338.5 – 394.5 366.5 1 395 – 450 394.5 – 450.5 422.5 3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 of 149

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**Solution: Frequency Histogram (using Midpoints)**

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 of 149

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**Solution: Frequency Histogram (using class boundaries)**

You can see that more than half of the GPS navigators are priced below $ © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 of 149

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**Graphs of Frequency Distributions**

Frequency Polygon A line graph that emphasizes the continuous change in frequencies. data values frequency © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 of 149

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**Example: Frequency Polygon**

Construct a frequency polygon for the GPS navigators frequency distribution. Class Midpoint Frequency, f 59 – 114 86.5 5 115 – 170 142.5 8 171 – 226 198.5 6 227 – 282 254.5 283 – 338 310.5 2 339 – 394 366.5 1 395 – 450 422.5 3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 of 149

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**Solution: Frequency Polygon**

The graph should begin and end on the horizontal axis, so extend the left side to one class width before the first class midpoint and extend the right side to one class width after the last class midpoint. You can see that the frequency of GPS navigators increases up to $ and then decreases. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 of 149

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**Graphs of Frequency Distributions**

Relative Frequency Histogram Has the same shape and the same horizontal scale as the corresponding frequency histogram. The vertical scale measures the relative frequencies, not frequencies. data values relative frequency © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 of 149

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**Example: Relative Frequency Histogram**

Construct a relative frequency histogram for the GPS navigators frequency distribution. Class Class boundaries Frequency, f Relative frequency 59 – 114 58.5 – 114.5 86.5 0.17 115 – 170 114.5 – 170.5 142.5 0.27 171 – 226 170.5 – 226.5 198.5 0.2 227 – 282 226.5 – 282.5 254.5 283 – 338 282.5 – 338.5 310.5 0.07 339 – 394 338.5 – 394.5 366.5 0.03 395 – 450 394.5 – 450.5 422.5 0.1 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 of 149

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**Solution: Relative Frequency Histogram**

From this graph you can see that 20% of GPS navigators are priced between $ and $ © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 of 149

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**Graphs of Frequency Distributions**

Cumulative Frequency Graph or Ogive A line graph that displays the cumulative frequency of each class at its upper class boundary. The upper boundaries are marked on the horizontal axis. The cumulative frequencies are marked on the vertical axis. data values cumulative frequency © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 of 149

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Constructing an Ogive Construct a frequency distribution that includes cumulative frequencies as one of the columns. Specify the horizontal and vertical scales. The horizontal scale consists of the upper class boundaries. The vertical scale measures cumulative frequencies. Plot points that represent the upper class boundaries and their corresponding cumulative frequencies. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 of 149

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**Constructing an Ogive Connect the points in order from left to right.**

The graph should start at the lower boundary of the first class (cumulative frequency is zero) and should end at the upper boundary of the last class (cumulative frequency is equal to the sample size). © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 of 149

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Example: Ogive Construct an ogive for the GPS navigators frequency distribution. Class Class boundaries Frequency, f Cumulative frequency 59 – 114 58.5 – 114.5 86.5 5 115 – 170 114.5 – 170.5 142.5 13 171 – 226 170.5 – 226.5 198.5 19 227 – 282 226.5 – 282.5 254.5 24 283 – 338 282.5 – 338.5 310.5 26 339 – 394 338.5 – 394.5 366.5 27 395 – 450 394.5 – 450.5 422.5 30 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 of 149

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Solution: Ogive From the ogive, you can see that about 25 GPS navigators cost $300 or less. The greatest increase occurs between $ and $ © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 33 of 149

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**Section 2.1 Summary Constructed frequency distributions**

Constructed frequency histograms, frequency polygons, relative frequency histograms and ogives © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 of 149

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**More Graphs and Displays**

Section 2.2 More Graphs and Displays © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 of 149

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Section 2.2 Objectives Graph quantitative data using stem-and-leaf plots and dot plots Graph qualitative data using pie charts and Pareto charts Graph paired data sets using scatter plots and time series charts © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 of 149

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**Graphing Quantitative Data Sets**

Stem-and-leaf plot Each number is separated into a stem and a leaf. Similar to a histogram. Still contains original data values. 26 2 3 4 5 Data: 21, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28, , 36, 36, 45 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 37 of 149

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**Example: Constructing a Stem-and-Leaf Plot**

The following are the numbers of text messages sent last month by the cellular phone users on one floor of a college dormitory. Display the data in a stem-and-leaf plot. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 38 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Stem-and-Leaf Plot**

The data entries go from a low of 78 to a high of 159. Use the rightmost digit as the leaf. For instance, 78 = 7 | and = 15 | 9 List the stems, 7 to 15, to the left of a vertical line. For each data entry, list a leaf to the right of its stem. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Stem-and-Leaf Plot**

Include a key to identify the values of the data. From the display, you can conclude that more than 50% of the cellular phone users sent between 110 and 130 text messages. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 40 of 149

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**Graphing Quantitative Data Sets**

Dot plot Each data entry is plotted, using a point, above a horizontal axis Data: 21, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 36, 36, 45 26 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 41 of 149

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**Example: Constructing a Dot Plot**

Use a dot plot organize the text messaging data. So that each data entry is included in the dot plot, the horizontal axis should include numbers between 70 and 160. To represent a data entry, plot a point above the entry's position on the axis. If an entry is repeated, plot another point above the previous point. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 42 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Dot Plot**

From the dot plot, you can see that most values cluster between 105 and 148 and the value that occurs the most is 126. You can also see that 78 is an unusual data value. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 of 149

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**Graphing Qualitative Data Sets**

Pie Chart A circle is divided into sectors that represent categories. The area of each sector is proportional to the frequency of each category. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 44 of 149

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**Example: Constructing a Pie Chart**

The numbers of earned degrees conferred (in thousands) in 2007 are shown in the table. Use a pie chart to organize the data. (Source: U.S. National Center for Educational Statistics) Type of degree Number (thousands) Associate’s 728 Bachelor’s 1525 Master’s 604 First professional 90 Doctoral 60 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 45 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Pie Chart**

Find the relative frequency (percent) of each category. Type of degree Frequency, f Relative frequency Associate’s 728 Bachelor’s 1525 Master’s 604 First professional 90 Doctoral 60 3007 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 46 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Pie Chart**

Construct the pie chart using the central angle that corresponds to each category. To find the central angle, multiply 360º by the category's relative frequency. For example, the central angle for cars is 360(0.24) ≈ 86º © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 47 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Pie Chart**

Type of degree Frequency, f Relative frequency Central angle Associate’s 728 0.24 Bachelor’s 1525 0.51 Master’s 604 0.20 First professional 90 0.03 Doctoral 60 0.02 360º(0.02)≈7º 360º(0.24)≈86º 360º(0.51)≈184º 360º(0.20)≈72º 360º(0.03)≈11º © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 48 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Pie Chart**

Type of degree Relative frequency Central angle Associate’s 0.24 86º Bachelor’s 0.51 184º Master’s 0.20 72º First professional 0.03 11º Doctoral 0.02 7º From the pie chart, you can see that most fatalities in motor vehicle crashes were those involving the occupants of cars. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 49 of 149

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**Graphing Qualitative Data Sets**

Pareto Chart A vertical bar graph in which the height of each bar represents frequency or relative frequency. The bars are positioned in order of decreasing height, with the tallest bar positioned at the left. Frequency Categories © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 50 of 149

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**Example: Constructing a Pareto Chart**

In a recent year, the retail industry lost $36.5 billion in inventory shrinkage. Inventory shrinkage is the loss of inventory through breakage, pilferage, shoplifting, and so on. The causes of the inventory shrinkage are administrative error ($5.4 billion), employee theft ($15.9 billion), shoplifting ($12.7 billion), and vendor fraud ($1.4 billion). Use a Pareto chart to organize this data. (Source: National Retail Federation and Center for Retailing Education, University of Florida) © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 51 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Pareto Chart**

Cause $ (billion) Admin. error 5.4 Employee theft 15.9 Shoplifting 12.7 Vendor fraud 1.4 From the graph, it is easy to see that the causes of inventory shrinkage that should be addressed first are employee theft and shoplifting. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 52 of 149

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**Graphing Paired Data Sets**

Each entry in one data set corresponds to one entry in a second data set. Graph using a scatter plot. The ordered pairs are graphed as points in a coordinate plane. Used to show the relationship between two quantitative variables. y x © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 53 of 149

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**Example: Interpreting a Scatter Plot**

The British statistician Ronald Fisher introduced a famous data set called Fisher's Iris data set. This data set describes various physical characteristics, such as petal length and petal width (in millimeters), for three species of iris. The petal lengths form the first data set and the petal widths form the second data set. (Source: Fisher, R. A., 1936) © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 54 of 149

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**Example: Interpreting a Scatter Plot**

As the petal length increases, what tends to happen to the petal width? Each point in the scatter plot represents the petal length and petal width of one flower. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 55 of 149

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**Solution: Interpreting a Scatter Plot**

Interpretation From the scatter plot, you can see that as the petal length increases, the petal width also tends to increase. A complete discussion of types of correlation occurs in chapter 9. You may want, however, to discuss positive correlation, negative correlation, and no correlation at this point. Be sure that students do not confuse correlation with causation. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 56 of 149

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**Graphing Paired Data Sets**

Time Series Data set is composed of quantitative entries taken at regular intervals over a period of time. e.g., The amount of precipitation measured each day for one month. Use a time series chart to graph. time Quantitative data © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 57 of 149

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**Example: Constructing a Time Series Chart**

The table lists the number of cellular telephone subscribers (in millions) for the years 1998 through Construct a time series chart for the number of cellular subscribers. (Source: Cellular Telecommunication & Internet Association) © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 58 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Time Series Chart**

Let the horizontal axis represent the years. Let the vertical axis represent the number of subscribers (in millions). Plot the paired data and connect them with line segments. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 59 of 149

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**Solution: Constructing a Time Series Chart**

The graph shows that the number of subscribers has been increasing since 1998, with greater increases recently. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 60 of 149

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Section 2.2 Summary Graphed quantitative data using stem-and-leaf plots and dot plots Graphed qualitative data using pie charts and Pareto charts Graphed paired data sets using scatter plots and time series charts © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 61 of 149

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