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JavaScript, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to JavaScript.

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Presentation on theme: "JavaScript, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to JavaScript."— Presentation transcript:

1 JavaScript, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to JavaScript

2 Development of JavaScript JavaScript is a subset of Java Differences between Java and JavaScript:

3 Development of JavaScript Jscript is a version of JavaScript supported by Internet Explorer The European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) develops scripting standards ◦The standard is called ECMAScript but browsers still generally call is JavaScript

4 Running script Two places where script executes: ◦Server-side - programs that run on the server that hosts a Web site ◦Client-side - programs that run on each user’s computer

5 Adding JavaScript to Your Web Pages JavaScript, Fifth Edition5

6 6 Using the Element Scripts –JavaScript programs contained within a Web page –A JavaScript program can either be placed directly in a Web page file or saved in an external text file element –Tells the browser that the scripting engine must interpret the commands it contains – Tells the browser which scripting language and which version of the scripting language being used

7 JavaScript, Fifth Edition7 Using the Element script statements; –Each statement inside the script tags is a single line that indicates an action for the browser to take –The semicolon notifies the browser that it has reached the end of the statement

8 Understanding JavaScript Objects Object –any item—from the browser window itself to a document displayed in the browser to an element displayed within the document –Programming code and data Treated as an individual unit or component Procedures –Individual statements used in a computer program grouped into logical units –Used to perform specific tasks Methods –a process by which JavaScript manipulates or acts upon the properties of an object –Procedures associated with an object JavaScript, Fifth Edition8

9 Understanding JavaScript Objects (cont’d.) Property –Piece of data associated with an object –Assign value to a property using an equal sign Argument –Information that must be provided to a method Passing arguments –Providing an argument for a method JavaScript, Fifth Edition9

10 10 Using the write() and writeln() Methods Document object – Represents content of a browser’s window To write text to a Web page, use the following JavaScript commands: document.write(“text”); or document.writeln(“text”)’ where text is the content to be written to the page.

11 JavaScript, Fifth Edition11 Using the write() and writeln() Methods document.write(“text”); or document.writeln(“text”)’ The document.write() and document.writeln() methods are identical, except that the document.writeln() method preserves any line breaks in the text string –Both methods require a text string as an argument –Text string (aka literal string) Text contained within double or single quotation marks

12 JavaScript, Fifth Edition12 Figure 1-6 Output of a script that uses the writeln() method of the Document object Using the write() and writeln() Methods (cont’d.)

13 Case Sensitivity in JavaScript JavaScript is case sensitive Ignores most occurrences of extra white space Do not break a statement into several lines Within JavaScript code: –Object names must always be all lowercase JavaScript, Fifth Edition13

14 Let’s Practice Write a basic HTML page containing script tags. Inside the script, use the document object to write out your name Syntax is: objectname.methodname document.write JavaScript, Fifth Edition14

15 Adding Comments to a JavaScript Program Comments –Nonprinting lines placed in code containing various types of remarks Line comment –Hides a single line of code –Add two slashes // before the comment text Block comments –Hide multiple lines of code –Add /* before the first character included in the block and */ after the last character in the block JavaScript, Fifth Edition15

16 Variables JavaScript, Fifth Edition16

17 Using Variables Variables –A variable is a named item in a program that stores information –Values a program stores in computer memory Assigning a value to a variable –Same as storing a value in a variable JavaScript, Fifth Edition17

18 Declaring a variable You can declare variables with any of the following JavaScript commands: var variable; var variable = value; variable = value; where variable is the name of the variable and value is the initial value of the variable. Use reserved keyword var to create variables The first command creates the variable without assigning it a value; the second and third commands both create the variable and assign it a value Assignment operator: equal sign ( = ) –Assigns value on the right side of the expression to the variable on the left side of the expression JavaScript, Fifth Edition18

19 Assigning Variable Names Identifier –Name assigned to a variable –Rules and conventions Must begin with an uppercase or lowercase ASCII letter, dollar sign ( $ ), or underscore ( _ ) Can use numbers in an identifier: not as the first character Cannot include spaces in an identifier Cannot use reserved words for identifiers Reserved words (keywords) –Special words: part of the JavaScript language syntax JavaScript, Fifth Edition19

20 JavaScript, Fifth Edition20 Table 1-2 JavaScript reserved words Assigning Variable Names (cont’d.)

21 JavaScript variable types Numeric variables –any number, such as 13, 22.5, etc String variables –any group of text characters, such as “Hello” or “Happy Holidays!” –Must be enclosed within either double or single quotations (but not both) Boolean variables –accepts only true and false values Null variables –has no value at all You must declare a variable before using it JavaScript, Fifth Edition21

22 JavaScript, Fifth Edition22 Printing variables Printing a variable –Pass variable name to document.write() or document.writeln() method –Do not enclose it in quotation marks Figure 1-8 Results of script that assigns the value of one variable to another

23 The + sign JavaScript is a weakly typed language The + symbol can be used with either numeric values or text strings var total = 5 + 4; var emLink = "cadler" + "@" + ""; JavaScript, Fifth Edition23

24 JavaScript, Fifth Edition24 The + sign –The plus sign can be used to perform arithmetic operations involving variables containing numeric values Figure 1-9 Results of script that adds the values of two variables

25 Modifying variables –Change a variable’s value at any point in a script Use a statement including the variable’s name Followed by an equal sign Followed by the value to assign to the variable var total = 5 + 4; var total = 22; JavaScript, Fifth Edition25

26 Building Expressions var total = 5 + subtotal; Variables and data are useful when used in an expression Expression –Literal value or variable or a combination of literal values, variables, operators, and other expressions Can be evaluated by JavaScript interpreter to produce a result JavaScript, Fifth Edition26

27 Building Expressions var total = 5 + 4; Use operands and operators to create expressions –Operands Variables and literals contained in an expression Literal –Value such as a literal string or a number –Operators Symbols used in expressions to manipulate operands +, -, *, / JavaScript, Fifth Edition27

28 Lets Practice Write a basic HTML page containing script tags. Inside the script, create a variable to store your name in. Use the document object to write out the variable’s contents Syntax is: objectname.methodname, as in document.write() JavaScript, Fifth Edition28

29 JavaScript, Fifth Edition29 Understanding Events Event –Specific circumstance monitored by JavaScript –Script can respond to in some way –Allows users to interact with Web pages Common events: actions users perform Can also monitor events not resulting from user actions

30 JavaScript, Fifth Edition30 Table 1-3 JavaScript events Understanding Events (cont’d.)

31 JavaScript, Fifth Edition31 Understanding Events (cont’d.) Working with elements and events –Events: associated with HTML elements –Event handler Code that executes in response to a specific event –JavaScript code for an event handler Can be contained within the quotation marks following the name of the JavaScript event handler

32 JavaScript, Fifth Edition32 Table 1-4 XHTML elements and their associated events Understanding Events (cont’d.)

33 JavaScript, Fifth Edition33 Referencing web page elements –Append element’s name to the name of any elements in which it is nested Start with the Document object –Specific element properties Appended to the element name –Allows for the retrieval of information about an element or the ability to change the values assigned to its attributes

34 Structuring JavaScript Code JavaScript, Fifth Edition34

35 JavaScript, Fifth Edition35 Including a Element for Each Code Section Can include as many script sections as desired –Must include a element for each section –Example code below See Figure 1-13 for results

36 JavaScript, Fifth Edition36 Placing JavaScript in the Document Head or Document Body element placement varies –Can place in the document head or document body –Statements in a script Rendered in the order in which they appear in the document –General rule Place as much JavaScript code as possible in the document head Important if code performs behind-the-scenes tasks required by script sections located in the document body

37 JavaScript, Fifth Edition37 Creating a JavaScript Source File External file containing JavaScript code –Usually designated by the.js file extension Can legally have any extension –Contains only JavaScript statements No element and no XHTML elements –Use the src attribute of the element Advantages –Neater code; code sharing; ability to hide JavaScript code from incompatible browsers Can use embedded JavaScript code and JavaScript source files combination

38 JavaScript, Fifth Edition38 Validating Web Pages Validating parser –Checks for a well formed Web page –Verifies document conforms to a specific DTD Validation –Process of verifying a well-formed document and checking the elements in your document Web development tools offer validation capabilities Validating services found online –W3C Markup Validation Service:

39 JavaScript, Fifth Edition39 Writing Valid JavaScript Code JavaScript statements contain symbols –Prevents HTML document from being well formed –Web pages will not validate when they contain script Two options to resolve validation issue –Move code into a source file –Keep JavaScript code within the document Enclose code within a element within a CDATA

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