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Introduction to JavaScript Dr. John P. Abraham University of Texas – Pan American.

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1 Introduction to JavaScript Dr. John P. Abraham University of Texas – Pan American

2 What is JavaScript Object-based scripting language Developed by Sun Microsystems Syntax is similar to C++ HTML is static, JavaScript adds interactivity. JavaScript can store information as cookies.

3 SCRIPTING LANGAUGES Programming languages developed to serve a particular purpose. JAVA SCRIPT was developed to add interactivity to Web pages Interpreted rather than compiled Interpreter is built into the web browsers First made available as part of Netscape 2.0 (Javascript created by Brendan Eich of Netscape)

4 Flavors of Java Script Core –Basic JavaScript language. It includes the operators control structures and built-in functions. Client side Server side

5 Client side javascript –Extends the core to provide access to browser and documents via DOM (document Object Model). Runs on the client’s (visitor) computer. –Example an image on the web page can be manipulated by JavaScript, we can change its source property (src) to display a different image in response to something the user is doing such as moving the mouse. –Javascript can be used to create cookies and read from it. –Also can be used for form validation saving time for a response from the server.

6 Popular Uses for JavaScript Client must have javascript enabled browser Rollovers, status bar messages, browser detection, redirecting the visitor, random images and quotes, pop-up windows, form validations, loading multiple frames at once, cookies, slide shows, calculations, plug-in detection, random sounds, cycling banners, displaying current date, displaying last modified date, etc.

7 Server side (SSJS) Provides access to databases and converts results into HTML format and delivers to the browser.

8 Other approaches to making web interactive Common Gateway Interface, CGI Java applets, Client pull (eg reload every 7 sec. Server push. (server maintains the connection and delivers additional data over a period of time) Plug-ins (adds animation and interactivity) Various other scripting languages

9 Web programming Web applications Many scripting languages available I assign these languages to different groups I begin with Java Scripting also introduce ASP.NET Most web applications work with a DBMS, mySQL, MSSQL, Oracle Database server can reside on another computer

10 Client/Server Application Server Computer (Web server, IIS, Apache) Client Computer (web browser, explorer, firefox) Requests are sent Responses are received Communication takes place using HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol)

11 Web browser Runs at the client site Provides an user interface for the application What is displayed is a web page Each web page is identified by a URL and defined by a web form Web form is designed using HTML The request to a server is sent using Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) A web page does not change depending on the request is known as a static page

12 Client/Server Interaction using HTTP (Static) Into a web browser the user types an URL or clicks on a link pointing to a URL The web browser uses HTTP to send the request to the web server. The request contains several pieces of information, address of the requester, address of the server including the page requested (URL). Etc. –URL contains protocol, domain name, path and file name When the server receives the request it retrieves the page and sends it as the HTTP response. The browser receives the information and formats it and displays it.

13 Default If a document name is omitted, it looks for default.htm, default.asp, index.htm, or iisstart.asp.

14 Client/Server Interaction using HTTP (Dynamic) A dynamic page does not exist on the disk at the server, it is a form that contains server controls such as labels, buttons, or text boxes. The page is dynamically generated at the server The request sent to the server contains the URL and information entered by the user When the server receives the request it looks at the extension (htm, html, aspx, cgi, etc). The first two are static. Others are handed over to the appropriate application server to assemble the page as an HTML document. The browser receives the information and formats it and displays it.

15 JavaScript and HTML HTML tag attributes can be accessed as object properties with javaScript. Document.bgcolor=“white” Document.write(“Hello”) You can even use script to write html –Document.write(“h1 align=center>Hello ”)

16 Example of html with script Script 1.1: Using the Write Method document.write("Hello")

17 Run

18 Example 2 Script 1.3: Changing Background & Foreground Colors document.write(" Hello ") document.bgColor = "blue" document.fgColor = "white"


20 Script in HTML head says it a text file and the scripting language is javaScript <!— Those browsers that do not support script will consider this as comments and ignore SCRIPT CODE HERE // 

21 Document Object The most import object in JavaScript is the document object To refer to a method for this object we write: document.write(“hello”) document.write(“ hello” ”) document.bgColor = “blue”

22 Obtaining user input with prompt dialog After <script – declare variables Var visitorName Read it this way: –vistorName=window.prompt(“Please enter your name”); Display it –Document.writeln(“Hello, “ + name)

23 Arithmatic + - * / % Show the rolls program here

24 Examine properties Document.write (“appName: “, navigator.appName); –Microsoft explorer Document.write(“Window location: “,window.location) –File:///A:/script.htmlFile:///A:/script.html Document.write(“history: “, window.history.length) –Length: 1

25 The Event Model Most popularly capture events –Load – finishes loading a page –Unload – loads a new one –Mouseover – mouse moved –Mouseout – move mouse off of object –Click –Focus – make active an object –Change – changes data selected –Submit – submits a form –Reset – resets a form Event handlers are onLoad, onClick, onChange, etc. ipt/chap07.html ipt/chap07.html

26 First JavaScript program Reporting Browser Information Your Browser document.write(" appCodeName: ", navigator.appCodeName, " ") document.write(" appName: ", navigator.appName, " ") document.write(" appVerson: ", navigator.appVersion, " ") document.write(" Platform: ", navigator.platform, " ")


28 SCRIPT IN BODY OF HTML document.write("Hello World!");

29 FUNCTIONS IN THE HEADING function message() { alert("This alert box was called with the onload event"); } SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR RUN


31 Scripts in the head section: Scripts to be executed when they are called, or when an event is triggered, go in the head section. When you place a script in the head section, you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.

32 Scripts in the body section: Scripts to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.

33 Using an External JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages, without having to write the same script on every page. To simplify this, you can write a JavaScript in an external file. Save the external JavaScript file with a.js file extension.

34 Explain future value program

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