Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Georg G. Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Georg G. Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München"— Presentation transcript:

1 Georg G. Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München
Axions Georg G. Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Motivation, Limits and Searches Axions PONT d’Avignon, April 2008, Avignon, France

2 Axion Physics in a Nut Shell
Particle-Physics Motivation CP conservation in QCD by Peccei-Quinn mechanism For fa ≫ fp axions are “invisible” and very light  Axions a ~ p0 mpfp  mafa g a Solar and Stellar Axions Axions thermally produced in stars, e.g. by Primakoff production Limits from avoiding excessive energy drain Search for solar axions (CAST, Sumico) a g Cosmology Cosmic String In spite of small mass, axions are born non-relativistically (“non-thermal relics”)  “Cold dark matter” candidate ma ~ meV Search for Axion Dark Matter S N g a Bext Microwave resonator (1 GHz = 4 meV) Primakoff conversion

3 The CP Problem of Strong Interactions
Characterizes degenerate QCD ground state (Q vacuum) Phase of Quark Mass Matrix Standard QCD Lagrangian contains a CP violating term Induces a neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) much in excess of experimental limits Why so small ?

4 Dynamical Solution Peccei & Quinn Wilczek Weinberg 1978 Re-interpret as a dynamical variable (scalar field) Peccei-Quinn scale, Axion decay constant Pseudo-scalar axion field a V(a) Potential (mass term) induced by LCP drives a(x) to CP-conserving minimum CP-symmetry dynamically restored Axions generically couple to gluons and mix with p0 gluon a Pion decay constant

5 Peccei-Quinn Mechanism Proposed in 1977

6 P.Sikivie, Physics Today, Dec. 1996, pg. 22
The Pool Table Analogy P.Sikivie, Physics Today, Dec. 1996, pg. 22 Gravity Pool table Symmetric relative to gravity Axis Symmetry dynamically restored (Peccei & Quinn 1977) New degree of freedom  Axion Q _ (Weinberg 1978, Wilczek 1978) fa Symmetry broken Floor inclined

7 30 Years of Axions

8 The Cleansing Axion Frank Wilczek “I named them after a laundry
detergent, since they clean up a problem with an axial current.” (Nobel lecture 2004, written version)

9 Windows of Opportunity
Axions Alternatives Solve strong CP problem by Peccei-Quinn dynamical symmetry restoration Massless up-quark Spontaneous CP violation set at some high energy scale (no radiative corrections) Cosmic cold dark matter candidate Direct detection possible Supersymmetric particles Superheavy particles Sterile Neutrinos Many others … (but usually not experimentally accessible) Search for new physics at E ≫ TeV in low-energy experiments (Axions Nambu-Goldstone boson of spontaneously broken symmetry) Neutrino masses (see-saw) Proton decay Neutron electric dipole moment Deviation from Newton’s Law (e.g. large extra dimensions)

10 Axions as a Research Topic
Papers in SPIRES that cite one of the two original Peccei and Quinn papers or Weinberg’s or Wilczek’s paper or with “axion” or “axino” in their title (total of 3186 papers up to 2007)

11 Axions as Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons
The realization of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism involves a new chiral U(1) symmetry, spontaneously broken at a scale fa Axions are the corresponding Nambu-Goldstone mode E  fa UPQ(1) spontaneously broken Higgs field settles in “Mexican hat” a V(a) E  LQCD ≪ fa UPQ(1) explicitly broken by instanton effects Mexican hat tilts Axions acquire a mass a V(a) Q=0 _

12 From Standard to Invisible Axions
Standard Model Standard Axion Weinberg 1978, Wilczek 1978 Invisible Axion Kim 1979, Shifman, Vainshtein, Zakharov 1980, Dine, Fischler, Srednicki 1981 Zhitnitsky 1980 All Higgs degrees of freedom are used up Peccei-Quinn scale fa = electroweak scale few Two Higgs fields, separately giving mass to up-type quarks and down-type quarks Additional Higgs with fa ≫ few Axions very light and and very weakly interacting No room for axions Axions quickly ruled out experimentally and astrophysically New scale required Axions can be cold dark matter Can be detected

13 Axion Properties g p a e G Gluon coupling (Generic property) a Mass
Photon coupling g a Pion coupling a p Nucleon coupling (axial vector) N a Electron coupling (optional) e a

14 Supernova 1987A Energy-Loss Argument
Neutrino sphere SN 1987A neutrino signal Neutrino diffusion Late-time signal most sensitive observable Emission of very weakly interacting particles would “steal” energy from the neutrino burst and shorten it. (Early neutrino burst powered by accretion, not sensitive to volume energy loss.) Volume emission of novel particles

15 Axions as Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons
The realization of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism involves a new chiral U(1) symmetry, spontaneously broken at a scale fa Axions are the corresponding Nambu-Goldstone mode E  fa UPQ(1) spontaneously broken Higgs field settles in “Mexican hat” a V(a) E  LQCD ≪ fa UPQ(1) explicitly broken by instanton effects Mexican hat tilts Axions acquire a mass a V(a) Q=0 _

16 Series of Papers on Axion Cosmology in PLB 120 (1983)
Page 127

17 Series of Papers on Axion Cosmology in PLB 120 (1983)
Page 133

18 Series of Papers on Axion Cosmology in PLB 120 (1983)
Page 137

19 Killing Two Birds with One Stone
Peccei-Quinn mechanism Solves strong CP problem May provide dark matter in the form of axions

20 Production of Cold Axion Population in the Early Universe
Approximate axion cold dark matter density Inflation after PQ symmetry breaking Homogeneous mode oscillates after T ≲ LQCD Dependence on initial misalignment angle Reheating restores PQ symmetry Cosmic strings of broken UPQ(1) form by Kibble mechanism Radiate long-wavelength axions Wa independent of initial conditions Isocurvature fluctuations from large quantum fluctuations of massless axion field created during inflation Strong CMBR bounds on isocurvature fluctuations Scale of inflation required to be very small LI ≲ 1013 GeV [Beltrán, García-Bellido & Lesgourgues hep-ph/ ] Inhomogeneities of axion field large, self-couplings lead to formation of mini-clusters Typical properties Mass ~ Msun Radius ~ 1010 cm Mass fraction up to several 10%

21 Axions from Cosmic Strings
Strings form by Kibble mechanism after break-down of UPQ(1) Small loops form by self-intersection Paul Shellard

22 Axion Mini Clusters The inhomogeneities of the axion field are large, leading to bound objects, “axion mini clusters”. [Hogan & Rees, PLB 205 (1988) 228.] Self-coupling of axion field crucial for dynamics. Typical mini cluster properties: Mass ~ Msun Radius ~ 1010 cm Mass fraction up to several 10% Potentially detectable with gravitational femtolensing Distribution of axion energy density. 2-dim slice of comoving length 0.25 pc [Kolb & Tkachev, ApJ 460 (1996) L25]

23 Inflation, Axions, and the Anthropic Principle
Late inflation scenario of axion cosmology Initial misalignment angle constant in our patch of the universe Dark matter density determined by the initial random number Qi Is different in different patches of the universe Dark matter fraction not calculable from first principles Random number chosen by process of spontaneous symmetry breaking Natural case for applying anthropic reasoning for the observed dark matter density relative to baryons Linde, “Inflation and Axion Cosmology,” PLB 201:437, 1988 Tegmark, Aguirre, Rees & Wilczek, “Dimensionless constants, cosmology and other dark matters,” PRD 73, (2006) [arXiv:astro-ph/ ]

24 Axion Hot Dark Matter from Thermalization after LQCD
Cosmic thermal degrees of freedom Freeze-out temperature 104 105 106 107 fa (GeV) Cosmic thermal degrees of freedom at axion freeze-out p a Chang & Choi, PLB 316 (1993) 51 104 105 106 107 fa (GeV)

25 Lee-Weinberg Curve for Neutrinos and Axions
log(Wa) log(ma) WM 10 eV 10 meV CDM HDM Axions Thermal Relics Non-Thermal Relics log(Wn) log(mn) WM 10 eV CDM HDM 10 GeV Neutrinos & WIMPs Thermal Relics

26 Axion Hot Dark Matter Limits from Precision Data
Credible regions for neutrino plus axion hot dark matter (WMAP-5, LSS, BAO, SNIa) Hannestad, Mirizzi, Raffelt & Wong [arXiv: ] Marginalizing over unknown neutrino hot dark matter component ma < 1.0 eV (95% CL) WMAP-5, LSS, BAO, SNIa Hannestad, Mirizzi, Raffelt & Wong [arXiv: ] ma < 0.4 eV (95% CL) WMAP-3, small-scale CMB, HST, BBN, LSS, Ly-a Melchiorri, Mena & Slosar [arXiv: ]

27 Too much hot dark matter
Axion Bounds 103 106 109 1012 [GeV] fa eV keV meV ma Experiments Tele scope CAST Direct search ADMX Too much hot dark matter Too much cold dark matter Globular clusters (a-g-coupling) Too many events Too much energy loss SN 1987A (a-N-coupling)

28 Experimental Tests of the Invisible Axion
Primakoff effect: Axions-photon transitions in external static E or B field (Originally discussed for p0 by Henri Primakoff 1951) Pierre Sikivie: Macroscopic B-field can provide a large coherent transition rate over a big volume (low-mass axions) Axion helioscope: Look at the Sun through a dipole magnet Axion haloscope: Look for dark-matter axions with A microwave resonant cavity

29 Search for Galactic Axions (Cold Dark Matter)
Power Frequency ma Axion Signal Thermal noise of cavity & detector Power of galactic axion signal Microwave Energies (1 GHz  4 meV) DM axions Velocities in galaxy Energies therefore ma = meV va  10-3 c Ea  (1  10-6) ma Axion Haloscope (Sikivie 1983) Bext  8 Tesla Microwave Resonator Q  105 Primakoff Conversion g a Bext Cavity overcomes momentum mismatch

30 Axion Dark Matter Searches
Limits/sensitivities, assuming axions are the galactic dark matter 4. CARRACK I (Kyoto) preliminary hep-ph/ 4 3. US Axion Search (Livermore) ApJL 571 (2002) L27 1. Rochester-Brookhaven- Fermilab PRD 40 (1989) 3153 2. University of Florida PRD 42 (1990) 1297 5. ADMX (Livermore) foreseen e.g. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75 (2003) 777 5 3 2 1

31 ADMX (G.Carosi, Fermilab, May 2007)

32 ADMX (G.Carosi, Fermilab, May 2007)

33 ADMX (G.Carosi, Fermilab, May 2007)

34 ADMX (G.Carosi, Fermilab, May 2007)
Renewed ADMX data taking has begun on 28 March 2008 (Same day as CAST He-3 began) ADMX (G.Carosi, Fermilab, May 2007)

35 ADMX (G.Carosi, Fermilab, May 2007)

36 Fine Structure in Axion Spectrum
Axion distribution on a 3-dim sheet in 6-dim phase space Is “folded up” by galaxy formation Velocity distribution shows narrow peaks that can be resolved More detectable information than local dark matter density P.Sikivie & collaborators

37 Search for Solar Axions
Axion Helioscope (Sikivie 1983) g Magnet S N a Axion-Photon-Oscillation Primakoff production Axion flux a g Sun Tokyo Axion Helioscope (“Sumico”) (Results since 1998, up again 2008) CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) (Data since 2003) Alternative technique: Bragg conversion in crystal Experimental limits on solar axion flux from dark-matter experiments (SOLAX, COSME, DAMA, ...)

38 Tokyo Axion Helioscope (“Sumico”)
S.Moriyama, M.Minowa, T.Namba, Y.Inoue, Y.Takasu & A.Yamamoto, PLB 434 (1998) 147

39 Results and Plans of Tokyo Axion Helioscope (“Sumico”)
S. Inoue at TAUP 07

40 Extending to higher mass values with gas filling
Axion-photon transition probability Axion-photon momentum transfer Transition suppressed for qL ≳ 1 Gas filling: Give photons a refractive mass to restore full transition strength (~ MSW effect) (ne electron density) He4 vapour pressure at 1.8 K

41 LHC Magnet Mounted as a Telescope to Follow the Sun


43 CAST Focussing X-Ray Telescope
From 43 mm  (LHC magnet aperture) to ~3 mm  Signal/background improvement > 100 Signal and background simultaneously measured One spare mirror system from the failed Abrixas x-ray satellite

44 Sun Spot on CCD with X-Ray Telescope

45 Limits from CAST-I and CAST-II
CAST-I results: PRL 94: (2005) and JCAP 0704 (2007) 010 CAST-II results (He-4 filling): preliminary

46 Limits on Axion-Photon-Coupling
10-4 10-6 10-8 10-10 10-12 10-14 10-16 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 100 Axion mass ma [eV] Axion-photon-coupling gag [GeV-1] KSVZ model DFSZ model Axion Line PVLAS expected Tokyo Helioscope Laser PVLAS expected Tokyo Helioscope Helio seis mology PVLAS expected HB Stars +Gas CAST Sensitivity DM Search Telescope PVLAS Signature Future CAST Sensitivity +Gas

47 Axion-like particles (ALPs)
(Pseudo)-scalar particles with a two-photon vertex

48 Particles with Two-Photon Coupling
Particles with two-photon vertex: Neutral pions (0), Gravitons Axions (a) and similar hypothetical particles Two-photon decay Photon Coalescence Primakoff Effect Conversion of photons into pions, gravitons or axions, or the reverse Magnetically induced vacuum birefringence In addition to QED Cotton-Mouton-effect PVLAS experiment recently measured an effect ~ 104 larger than QED expectation (Signal now disproved)

49 Dimming of Supernovae without Cosmic Acceleration?
Axion-photon-oscillations in intergalactic B-field domains dim photon flux  Effect grows linearly with distance  Saturates at equipartition between photons and axions (unlike grey dust) Mixing matrix Domain size ~ 1 Mpc Field strength ~ 1 nG a-g-coupling ~ GeV-1 Axion mass < eV Photon energy ~ 1 eV Electron density ~ 10-7 cm-3 (average baryon density) Chromaticity depends sensitively on assumed values and distribution of ne and B Csáki, Kaloper & Terning (hep-ph/ , hep-ph/ , astro-ph/ ). Erlich & Grojean (hep-ph/ ). Deffayet, et al. (hep-ph/ ). Christensson & Fairbairn (astro-ph/ ). Mörtsell et al. (astro-ph/ ). Mörtsell & Goobar (astro-ph/ ). Bassett (astro-ph/ ). Ostman & Mörtsell (astro-ph/ ). Mirizzi, Raffelt & Serpico (astro-ph/ ).

50 Cantatore 12

51 The PVLAS Dichroism Signal
PVLAS, PRL 96: (2006), hep-ex/

52 Zavattini et al., PRD 77:032006, 2008 [arXiv:0706.3419]
Latest PVLAS Results Zavattini et al., PRD 77:032006, 2008 [arXiv: ]

53 Photon Regeneration Experiments
“Shining light through a wall” Single pass Resonant cavities on generation & regeneration side hep-ph/

54 No Light Shining Through a Wall
BMV Experiment, using a pulsed laser and pulsed magnetic field (Toulouse) Robilliard et al., arXiv: GammeV Experiment with a variable baseline (Fermilab) Chou et al., arXiv:

55 Technological Applications of PVLAS Particles
arXiv: v1 [hep-ph]

Download ppt "Georg G. Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google