Presentation on theme: "1.Review- Name four groups of organic compounds found in living things Explain- Describe at least one function of each group of organic compounds Infer-"— Presentation transcript:
1 1.Review- Name four groups of organic compounds found in living things Explain- Describe at least one function of each group of organic compounds Infer- Why are proteins considered polymers but lipids not2.Observe- What atoms constitute the compound above Classify- what class of macromolecules does the compound belong to
3 Organic chemistry means the study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms, while inorganic chemistry is the study of all other compoundsIn the early 1800s, many chemists called the compounds created by organisms “organic,” believing they were fundamentally different from compounds in nonliving things.
4 The Chemistry of Carbon Have four valence electronsAllows them to form 4 strong covalent bonds with many other elementsLiving organisms are made up of molecules that consist of carbon and other elements.
5 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can also bond to carbon atomsCarbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bondsChains of carbon atoms can also form rings.
6 Macromolecules Made from 1000’s or even 100,000’s of smaller molecules Formed by a process known as polymerizationLarge compounds are built by joining smaller ones together.
7 Macromolecules The smaller units When the monomers join together. PolymersWhen the monomers join together.
8 Macromolecules Sorted into groups based on their chemical composition Four major groups are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic acids, and Proteins.
9 Carbohydrates Only contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Always the same ration CH2OSugars are the subunits and may vary in number of carbons it containsTo make a carb., hook many sugars together.
10 Simple Sugars Monosaccharides Disaccharide Not all sugars are sweet. Single sugar moleculesGlucoseGalactoseFructoseDisaccharideCompound made of two single sugarsSucroseNot all sugars are sweet.
12 CarbohydratesStore extra sugar as complex carbohydrates. The monomers in starch polymers are sugar molecules, such as glucose.
13 Complex Carbohydrates Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides are known as polysaccharides.
14 Complex Carbohydrates StarchEnergy storage in plants, human food sourceCelluloseStructure in plants, humans cannot digestGlycogenEnergy storage in animals.
15 Lipids Only contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Consists of long Carbon chains with Hydrogens attachedVery efficient at storing energy- 2X per mass as carbs.
16 Other Uses of LipidsCholesterolHormonesSteroidsPhospholipids.
17 LipidsFormed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids.
18 Lipids Saturated Unsaturated Polyunsaturated Each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bondUnsaturatedAt least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acidPolyunsaturatedContain more than one double bond.
19 Lipids Unsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature Saturated fatty acids tend to be solid at room temperature.
20 Nucleic Acids Used for hereditary information Made of Nucleotides Contain a phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen baseNucleotides join together to form Nucleic acids.
21 Nucleic AcidsNucleotides can be joined by covalent bonds to form a polynucleotide, or nucleic acidTwo kinds of nucleic acids:Ribonucleic acid (RNA)Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
23 Protein Used for muscle, cell structure, and enzymes Formed using the subunit Amino AcidsAlways have the pattern N-C-C.
24 Amino Acids 20 different amino acids Plants can make all 20, we can’t Amino group (–NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (–COOH) on the other.
25 Making a Protein Peptide Bonds Covalent bonds link amino acids together to form a polypeptide.
26 Levels of Organization Proteins have four levels of structurePrimary structure is the sequence of its amino acidsSecondary structure is the folding or coiling of the polypeptide chain.
27 Levels of Organization Tertiary structure is the complete, three-dimensional arrangement of a polypeptide chainQuaternary structure is the arrangement of multiple polypeptidesHemoglobin has four subunits (4 polypeptides).