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Nutrition and the six essential nutrients

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1 Nutrition and the six essential nutrients
Essential Question: Why do I need to eat a variety of foods?

2 What is a nutrient? A substance in food the body needs to work properly

3 6 essential nutrients Without these nutrients, our bodies won’t function properly and can result in dehydration or malnourishment which can both end in death Carbohydrates *Water Protein *Vitamins Fat *Minerals

4 What is a calorie? Calories are measurement of the energy that food provides to your body. The more calories, the more energy. Energy that is unused is often stored as extra fat in the body; this can cause health problems. Calories come from three of our macronutrients (carbs, protein and fat) One gram of fat provides 9 calories, One gram of protein or carbs provides 4 calories

5 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates provide the most (and best) energy for our bodies. There are two types of carbs: Simple carbs: digest quickly; raise blood sugar quickly, but only last a short time so blood sugar drops quickly and causes tired and hungry feeling. Complex carbs: slower digesting; help body maintain a normal, consistent blood sugar level, which also controls food cravings. Carbohydrates should provide 50-60% of your calories daily. Examples: complex - whole wheat bread simple - sugar

6 Protein Protein helps repair and rebuild cells, including hair, skin, and muscle. Protein bonds damaged cells together and makes them stronger (like welding) 10-20% of your calories should come from protein each day. Examples: fish, beef, nuts and seeds

7 Fatty acids Fat in the body helps with temperature regulation, long-term energy storage and protection for organs, as well as absorption of some vitamins. There are four types of fatty acids that exist, some good and some bad. Trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids do not process well in the body and have been known to cause high cholesterol and heart diseases that could lead to a heart attack or stroke.

8 Fatty acids (cont.) Mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fats are healthier fats that do not cause the same health problems as other fats and can even be beneficial, lowering cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of heart disease. 30% of our calories should come from fats each day. Examples: trans - butter/margerine, saturated - cheese or meat, mono - vegetable oils, poly - omega 3 (fish oil)

9 Water Water hydrates the body and carries oxygen to cells; cells need oxygen to survive and stay healthy. Water also helps flush waste through the body so that our body stays fresh and healthy. Examples: water, fresh fruits and some vegetables

10 Vitamins Different vitamins help with different functions in the body. Some examples include: Vitamin A Helps with healthy hair and skin Carrots, squash Vitamin C Helps fight germs and illnesses Orange juice, broccoli Vitamin B-12 Helps concentration and memory Fish, milk, eggs

11 Minerals Similar to vitamins, minerals help with a variety of different functions within the body. Some examples include: Calcium Makes strong bones and teeth Milk, cheese, yogurt Iron Helps keep blood healthy Tofu, spinach, red meat Potassium Helps regulate blood pressure Bananas, sweet potatoes

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