Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules: The 4 Building Blocks of Life. A. What are macromolecules? 1 : Macromolecules are in living cells and are made up of smaller molecules."— Presentation transcript:
A. What are macromolecules? 1 : Macromolecules are in living cells and are made up of smaller molecules. a. small units know as monomers bond together to form polymers. b. There are four types: Lipid, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
B. The Carbon…the little element that could 1. Carbon: is the element that allows all these different possibilities. It can form up to four bonds, allowing it to form chains, branches, and rings. Nature of carbon atoms explained using an Animation - Tutorvista.com
2. Carbohydrates: Store energy and building materials a. monosaccharides: single, simple sugars. Ex. glucose and fructose b. disaccharides: double, two sugars
c.. polysaccharides: made of many monosaccharides. Ex.1. Glycogen: made of glucose stored in animals. Ex 2. Starch: made of glucose monomers, it is stored in plants Glucose-glucose-glucose-glucose = starch = polysaccharide
d. Other polysaccharides… 1. cellulose: found in plant cell walls, provides structural support (think wood) 2. Chitin: found in exoskeleton of crabs, provides structural support
Polysacchrides provide structural support. Cellulose in plants Chitin in arthropods
C. Lipids: hydro (water)-phobic (scared of) …don’t mix with water 1. includes oils, fats, and waxes 2. Used for storage of energy and a part of all cell membranes 3. Fats are composed of a glycerol and three fatty acids
a.saturated fats: no double bonds, maximum number of hydrogen atoms example: butter, lard, and other solid fats b. unsaturated fats: one or more double bonds example : olive oil, canola oil, other liquid oils
(a) Saturated fat and fatty acid Stearic acid (b) Unsaturated fat and fatty acid double bond Oleic acid Which one causes heart disease?
D. Proteins: needed for growth, repair, and to make enzymes. a. Wide range of functions 1. control speed of reaction 2. regulated processes 3. build bone and muscle 4. fight disease.
b. Proteins are a polymer known as a polypeptide chain made up amino acid monomers. 1. There are 20 types of amino acids. amino acid basics Biomolecules - The Proteins - Learning Activity - Flash Player Installation aa Polypeptide or protein
c. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. a. they are not changed in the reaction b. they are affected or “ denatured “ by extreme changes in temperature or ph level. c. Denaturing caused proteins to lose their original shape and function. d. Proteins go through 4 levels of organization, the shape is part of its function.
d. Review of Protein Structure + H 3 N Amino end Amino acid subunits helix
1. Function is to store and transmit genetic information 2. two types: DNA, and RNA E. Nucleic Acids
3. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid a. double helix, two strands (think twisted ladder) b. made of monomers called nucleotide bases c. Nucleotide bases are made of a 5- carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base. d. Bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine e. Contains deoxyribose sugar
4. RNA : ribonucleic acid a. generally single stranded b. bases include Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil c. three types, mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA
1 2 3 Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore Synthesis of protein NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM DNA mRNA Ribosome Amino acids Polypeptide mRNA Figure 5.25 Preview of DNA and RNA