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The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

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Presentation on theme: "The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment"— Presentation transcript:


2 The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

3 Biosphere The part of Earth that supports life
Top portion of Earth's crust All the waters that cover Earth's surface Atmosphere that surrounds Earth.


5 Factors that affect the biosphere may be living or nonliving
Biotic Factors: living such as plants animals, bacteria fungus, Abiotic Factors: nonliving such as soil, sun, water air, temperature Name the biotic and abiotic factors in this picture

6 Ecosystem All the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment

7 The place in which an organism lives
Habitat The place in which an organism lives provides the kinds of food and shelter, proper temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive

8 NICHE A niche is the role an organism or population plays within its community or ecosystem It includes all the relationships that an organism (or population) has with its environment and with other organisms and populations in its environment.

9 Population All the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species

10 Community All the different populations that live within an ecosystem


12 Limiting Factor Anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population. Includes living and nonliving features of the ecosystem

13 Carrying Capacity The largest number of individuals of a particular species that an ecosystem can support over time. It can be changed by nature or humans.

14 Competition For Food and Space
Competition caused by population growth affects many organisms, including humans Limits population size

15 Counting Populations RANDOM SAMPLES
Make a GRID Count the total number of squares in the grid Choose one square of the grid at random. Count the population in that one square. Estimate the total population by multiplying the number in one square time the total squares in the grid.

16 ACTUAL COUNT Each member of a population is counted one by one
Name of Population Ducks Cattails Water Lilies Actual Count 6 20 4 Sample Count

17 Relationships Producers, such a s plants, use the sun to make food.
Most of the energy they use for themselves. Consumers that eat producers to get energy: are First Order Consumers (herbivores)

18 A consumer that eats another consumer for energy is a Secondary Consumer (carnivore or scavenger)
A consumer that eats a secondary consumer is a 3rd level consumer

19 Feeding Relationships
Herbivores eat producers Carnivores eat herbivores Omnivores eat producers and consumers Predators kill for food (consumer); can be a carnivore or omnivore. Prey is hunted for food (consumer); can be herbivore, omnivore or carnivore.

20 Feeding Relationships
Producers such as plants use the sun to make energy rich food Consumers obtain their food by eating other organisms Decomposers consume waste and dead organisms

21 Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem

22 Food Chain

23 Food Chain - a chain along which energy passes
Food Chain - a chain along which energy passes. Energy is transferred form prey to predator

24 Energy Flows through an Ecosystem through Food Webs

25 Food Web – complex network of interconnected food chains and feeding relationships

26 Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level
Energy Pyramid Shows energy flow. As the amount of available energy decreases, the pyramid gets smaller. Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level

27 Living Relationships Symbiosis any close relationship between species, including mutualism, commensalism and parasitism.

28 Mutualism Mutualism: Both organisms benefit
A 3-way Mutualism between an ant, a butterfly caterpillar, and an acacia in the American southwest. The caterpillars have nectar organs which the ants drink from, and the acacia tolerates the feeding caterpillars. The ants appear to provide some protection for both plant

29 Commensalism One organism benefits and the other is unaffected

30 Parasitism – one organism benefits and the other is harmed

31 Succession Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary. Primary – begins in a place without soil Secondary – where soil already exists

32 Primary Succession

33 Secondary Succession

34 Pioneer species A group of organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an area's soil-building process

35 Climax Community A community that has reached a stable stage of ecological succession Plants and animals of the community use resources efficiently Balance is maintained by disturbances such as fire

36 Biomes Large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems







43 Human Impact

44 Pollution: any substance that contaminates the environment
Air pollution Cause: smoke, gases, volcanic eruptions, dust, fires, evaporation of chemicals and burning fuels Effect: Irritates eyes and lungs, can cause lung diseases

45 Water Pollution Causes: waste water from factories & sewage treatment plants, chemical runoff off from land, and oil spills Effects: kills water dwelling organisms, creates shortage of food, increase in algal blooms

46 Soil Pollution Cause: air or water pollutants contaminate ground, improper disposal of trash and chemicals Effects: danger to soil dwelling organisms, can pollute ground water

47 Acid Rain Cause: pollutants from burning fossil fuels react with H2O to form strong acids Effect: washes nutrients form soil, lowers pH of lakes and pond water, water dwelling organisms die, erodes buildings

48 Ozone Depletion Causes: pollutant gases (CFC’s) leak into the air breaking apart ozone molecules, depleting it Effect: depleted ozone allows amount of UV radiation to increase; increase in skin cancers. Too much ozone at earths surface pollutes the air and can damage lungs and plant tissues

49 Greenhouse Effect Cause: sunlight trapped by atmospheric gases (CO2)
Too much CO2 caused by an increase in burning fossil fuels allows for more sunlight to be trapped, hence Global Warming Effects: polar ice cap melt, change in rainfall patterns, increase in storms (hurricanes), increase in tropical disease

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