5 Factors that affect the biosphere may be living or nonliving Biotic Factors: living such as plants animals, bacteria fungus,Abiotic Factors: nonliving such as soil, sun, water air, temperatureName the biotic and abiotic factors in this picture
6 EcosystemAll the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment
7 The place in which an organism lives HabitatThe place in which an organism livesprovides the kinds of food and shelter, proper temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive
8 NICHEA niche is the role an organism or population plays within its community or ecosystemIt includes all the relationships that an organism (or population) has with its environment and with other organisms and populations in its environment.
9 PopulationAll the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species
10 CommunityAll the different populations that live within an ecosystem
12 Limiting FactorAnything that restricts the number of individuals in a population. Includes living and nonliving features of the ecosystem
13 Carrying CapacityThe largest number of individuals of a particular species that an ecosystem can support over time.It can be changed by nature or humans.
14 Competition For Food and Space Competition caused by population growth affects many organisms, including humansLimits population size
15 Counting Populations RANDOM SAMPLES Make a GRIDCount the total number of squares in the gridChoose one square of the grid at random.Count the population in that one square.Estimate the total population by multiplying the number in one square time the total squares in the grid.
16 ACTUAL COUNT Each member of a population is counted one by one Name of PopulationDucksCattailsWater LiliesActual Count6204Sample Count
17 Relationships Producers, such a s plants, use the sun to make food. Most of the energy they use for themselves.Consumers that eat producers to get energy: are First Order Consumers (herbivores)
18 A consumer that eats another consumer for energy is a Secondary Consumer (carnivore or scavenger) A consumer that eats a secondary consumer is a 3rd level consumer
19 Feeding Relationships Herbivores eat producersCarnivores eat herbivoresOmnivores eat producers and consumersPredators kill for food (consumer); can be a carnivore or omnivore.Prey is hunted for food (consumer); can be herbivore, omnivore or carnivore.
20 Feeding Relationships Producers such as plants use the sun to make energy rich foodConsumers obtain their food by eating other organismsDecomposers consume waste and dead organisms
23 Food Chain - a chain along which energy passes Food Chain - a chain along which energy passes. Energy is transferred form prey to predator
24 Energy Flows through an Ecosystem through Food Webs
25 Food Web – complex network of interconnected food chains and feeding relationships
26 Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level Energy PyramidShows energy flow. As the amount of available energy decreases, the pyramid gets smaller.Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level
27 Living RelationshipsSymbiosis any close relationship between species, including mutualism, commensalism and parasitism.
28 Mutualism Mutualism: Both organisms benefit A 3-way Mutualism between an ant, a butterfly caterpillar, and an acacia in the American southwest. The caterpillars have nectar organs which the ants drink from, and the acacia tolerates the feeding caterpillars. The ants appear to provide some protection for both plant
29 CommensalismOne organism benefits and the other is unaffected
30 Parasitism – one organism benefits and the other is harmed
31 SuccessionNatural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary.Primary – begins in a place without soilSecondary – where soil already exists
44 Pollution: any substance that contaminates the environment Air pollutionCause: smoke, gases, volcanic eruptions, dust, fires, evaporation of chemicals and burning fuelsEffect: Irritates eyes and lungs, can cause lung diseases
45 Water PollutionCauses: waste water from factories & sewage treatment plants, chemical runoff off from land, and oil spillsEffects: kills water dwelling organisms, creates shortage of food, increase in algal blooms
46 Soil PollutionCause: air or water pollutants contaminate ground, improper disposal of trash and chemicalsEffects: danger to soil dwelling organisms, can pollute ground water
47 Acid RainCause: pollutants from burning fossil fuels react with H2O to form strong acidsEffect: washes nutrients form soil, lowers pH of lakes and pond water, water dwelling organisms die, erodes buildings
48 Ozone DepletionCauses: pollutant gases (CFC’s) leak into the air breaking apart ozone molecules, depleting itEffect: depleted ozone allows amount of UV radiation to increase; increase in skin cancers.Too much ozone at earths surface pollutes the air and can damage lungs and plant tissues
49 Greenhouse Effect Cause: sunlight trapped by atmospheric gases (CO2) Too much CO2 caused by an increase in burning fossil fuels allows for more sunlight to be trapped, hence Global WarmingEffects: polar ice cap melt, change in rainfall patterns, increase in storms (hurricanes), increase in tropical disease