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Honors Biology Chapter 34

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1 Honors Biology Chapter 34
Nature of Ecosystems John Regan Wendy Vermillion Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 34.1 The biotic components of ecosystems
Populations of an ecosystem Autotrophs- primary producers Require an energy source and inorganic nutrients to produce organic food molecules Manufacture organic nutrients for all organisms Green plants and algae-photosynthesis Bacteria-chemoautotrophs Heterotrophs- consumers Consume organic nutrients Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores Decomposers- fungi, bacteria Break down decaying matter releasing nutrients Detritus- partially decomposed matter Detritivore-eats detritus

3 Biotic components Fig. 34.1

4 The biotic components of ecosystems cont’d.
Energy flow and chemical cycling Energy enters ecosystem in the form of sunlight absorbed by producers Chemicals enter when producers absorb inorganic nutrients Producers then make organic nutrients for themselves and all other organisms in the ecosystem Consumers (herbivores and omnivores) gain nutrients and energy from eating producers Higher level consumers (carnivores) then gain nutrients and energy from eating herbivores and omnivores Some energy is released at each level to the environment in the form of heat and waste products

5 Energy flow and chemical cycling
Fig. 34.2

6 Energy balances Fig. 34.3

7 The biotic components of ecosystems cont’d.
The following two slides illustrate food webs Food webs illustrate the interrelationships between organisms in the food chain Identify the producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers Laws of thermodynamics First law- energy is neither created nor destroyed Ecosystems depend on continual outside source of energy Second law- with every transformation, some energy is given off as heat The amount of available energy at each successive trophic level is less than the one below it

8 Grazing food webs Fig. 34.4

9 Detritis food web Fig. 34.5

10 34.2 Energy flow Trophic levels
Trophic level is composed of all organisms that feed at a particular link in the food chain Primary producers- first trophic level Primary consumers- second trophic level Secondary consumers- third trophic level Ecological pyramids- diagrams of the community Represent amount of available energy in each trophic level Producers are at the base- the most available energy Energy is given off in less usable forms as producers are eaten by primary consumers, etc. Numbers, biomass, or energy Biomass- the number of organisms at each level multiplied by their weight

11 Ecological pyramid Fig. 34.6

12 34.3 Global biogeochemical cycles
Pathways involve both biotic and abiotic components Reservoir-source unavailable to producers Exchange pool-source from which organisms take chemicals Biotic community-chemicals move through community along food chains 2 main types of cycles Gaseous cycle-drawn from and returns to the atmosphere Sedimentary cycle-element is drawn from soil by plant roots, eaten by consumers, returned to soil by decomposers

13 Model for chemical cycling
Fig. 34.7

14 Global biogeochemical cycles cont’d.
The water cycle Freshwater evaporates from bodies of water Precipitation over land enters ground, surface waters, aquifers Eventually returns to oceans over time Hydrologic cycle is illustrated on the following slide Note that size of arrow is proportional to rate of transfer Human impact In arid southwest and southern Florida, water mining is occurring Aquifers are being drained faster than they can be naturally replenished

15 The hydrologic cycle Fig. 34.8

16 Global biogeochemical cycles cont’d.
The phosphorus cycle Phosphate enters soil as rocks undergo weathering process Picked up by producers and cycles through consumers and finally decomposers Human impact Accelerated transfer rate due to phosphate mining, supplementation on farm fields, detergents Cultural eutrophication- over-enrichment Can lead to increased algal bloom As algae die off, decomposers consume high levels of oxygen in the water Results in massive fish kills Phosphorus cycle is illustrated on the following slide

17 The phosphorus cycle Fig. 34.9

18 Global biogeochemical cycles cont’d.
The nitrogen cycle Nitrogen fixation-conversion of nitrogen gas N2 to ammonium NH4+ by bacteria 78% of atmosphere is nitrogen gas, but unusable by plants Root nodules of legumes house nitrogen-fixing bacteria Nitrification-production of nitrates which plants can also use Nitrogen gas converted to nitrate in atmosphere by lightning Ammonium in soil converted to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria Nitrite bacteria ammonia →nitrite (NO2-) Nitrate bacteria nitrite → nitrate (NO3-) Denitrification-conversion of nitrate back to nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria Human activities- N2 from fertilizers increases transfer rates

19 The nitrogen cycle Fig

20 Global biogeochemical cycles cont’d.
The carbon cycle Photosynthesis takes up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere Cell respiration returns it to the atmosphere Reservoirs of carbon Dead organisms- fossil fuels Forests Human activities More carbon dioxide is being deposited in atmosphere than is being removed Due to deforestation and burning of fossil fuels Increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere contributes to global warming

21 The carbon cycle Fig

22 Ozone O2 → O3 Oxygen is converted into ozone in atmosphere by UV rays
Also by lightning and industry Ozone in lower atmosphere –air pollutant In stratosphere- blocks UV rays UV rays cause sunburn, skin cancer, cataracts, slows growth of plants Ozone has been depleted 10% ↓ ozone, 26% ↑ cataracts, skin cancer Cause of ozone depletion- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCs banned 2000

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