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Earth’s Atmosphere Ch. 22.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Atmosphere Ch. 22."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Atmosphere Ch. 22

2 atmosphere a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth
atmosphere a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth The most abundant elements in air are the gases nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. The two most abundant compounds in air are the gases carbon dioxide, CO2, and water vapor, H2O.

3 Nitrogen in the Atmosphere
Nitrogen makes up about 78% of Earth’s atmosphere and is maintained through the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen is removed from the air mainly by the action of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Decay releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere.

4 Oxygen in the Atmosphere
Oxygen makes up about 21% of Earth’s atmosphere. Land and ocean plants produce large quantities of oxygen in a process called photosynthesis Animals, bacteria, and plants remove oxygen from the air as part of their life processes.

5 Composition of the Atmosphere
Water Vapor in the Atmosphere As water evaporates from oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, it enters air as the invisible gas water vapor. Plants and animals give off water vapor during transpiration, one of their processes. But as water vapor enters the atmosphere, it is removed by the processes of condensation and precipitation.

6 Composition of the Atmosphere
Ozone in the Atmosphere ozone a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms Ozone in the upper atmosphere forms the ozone layer, which absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Without the ozone layer, living organisms would be severely damaged by the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Unfortunately, a number of human activities damage the ozone layer. What are some “activities” that damage our ozone?

7 Composition of the Atmosphere
Particulates in the Atmosphere Particulates can be volcanic dust, ash from fires, microscopic organisms, or mineral particles lifted from soil by winds.

8 Layers of the Atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphere as a distinctive pattern of temperature changes with increasing altitude. Scientists identify four main layers of the atmosphere based on these differences. The Troposphere The Stratosphere The Mesosphere The Thermosphere


10 The Troposphere troposphere - the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases; the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist

11 The Stratosphere stratosphere the layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone layer

12 The Mesosphere mesosphere the coldest layer of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and the thermosphere, in which the temperature decreases as altitude increases The upper boundary of the mesosphere, called the mesopause, has an average temperature of nearly 90°C, which is the coldest temperature in the atmosphere.

13 The Thermosphere thermosphere the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increase as altitude increases; includes the ionosphere Ionosphere - The lower region of the thermosphere, at an altitude of 80 to 400 km Interactions between solar radiation and the ionosphere cause the phenomena known as auroras. What is an aurora???



16 Pop Quiz 1. Which layer of the atmosphere is the coldest, reaching -90C? A. Troposphere B. Stratosphere C. Mesosphere D. Thermosphere

17 2. In what layer of the atmosphere does weather conditions exist?
A. Troposphere B. Stratosphere C. Mesosphere D. Thermosphere

18 3. In which layer of the atmosphere does the ozone layer exist?
A. Troposphere B. Stratosphere C. Mesosphere D. Thermosphere

19 4. What is the most common element that makes up our atmosphere?
A. Oxygen B. Nitrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Hydrogen

20 5. Land and ocean plants produce large quantities of oxygen in a process called what?
A. Photosynthesis B. transpiration C. evaporation D. Absorption

21 6. Which part of the atmosphere absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun?
A. Thermosphere B. Mesosphere C. Ozone Layer D. Ionosphere

22 Radiation All of the energy that Earth receives from the sun travels through space between Earth and the sun as radiation. Radiation includes all forms of energy that travel through space as waves.

23 Radiation can take several forms but the most common is light (electro-magnetic radiation).
Light radiation is categorized by its wavelength. The shorter the wave length the more energetic (and dangerous).


25 The Earth’s atmosphere protects us from the harmful radiations by absorbing the energy of the light radiation. Different layers of the atmospheres absorb different wavelengths of radiation. The Exosphere and Thermosphere absorb high energy X-Ray and UV Rays The Mesosphere absorbs very little. The Stratosphere absorbs mid-energy UV Rays The Troposphere absorbs low energy Infra Red Radiation

26 Electromagnetic Spectrum…
electromagnetic spectrum - all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation The distance from any point on a wave to the identical point on the next wave, for example from crest to crest, is called the wavelength of a wave.

27 The various types of radiation differ in the length of their waves.

28 The diagram below shows the varying waves of the electromagnetic spectrum.

29 Reflection albedo the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off the surface of an object. Reflection - the return of light, heat, sound, etc., after striking a surface. The amount of energy that is absorbed or reflected depends on characteristics such as color, texture, composition, volume, mass, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat of the material on which the solar radiation falls.


31 Absorption Solar radiation that is not reflected is absorbed by rocks, soil, water, and other surface materials. The absorption of thermal energy from the ground heats the lower atmosphere and keeps Earth’s surface much warmer than it would be if there were no atmosphere.

32 The Greenhouse Effect greenhouse effect the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate radiation Earth’s atmosphere slows the escape of energy that radiates from Earth’s surface.

33 The diagram below shows the greenhouse effect and the latitude and seasons.

34 Human Impact on the Greenhouse Effect
Generally, the amount of solar energy that enters Earth’s atmosphere is about equal to the amount that escapes into space. However, human activities may change this balance and may cause the average temperature of the atmosphere to increase. Increases in the amount of carbon dioxide may intensify the greenhouse effect and may cause Earth to become warmer in some areas and cooler in others.

35 http://video. nationalgeographic

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