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Composition Atmosphere is a Mixture of changes by time and place Gases

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Presentation on theme: "Composition Atmosphere is a Mixture of changes by time and place Gases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere - layer of gases that surrounds a planet or moon held by gravity (ocean of air)

2 Composition Atmosphere is a Mixture of changes by time and place Gases
Dust Water vapor clouds and precipitation (rain) Absorbs heat and energy from the sun changes by time and place

3 Ozone (O3) – very rare and less stable type of oxygen molecule that combines 3 atoms of oxygen
Thin layer is found in the Stratosphere 3 ozone for every 10,000,000 air molecules Protects living things from harmful UV sun rays Manmade chemicals destroy ozone. Humans have thinned the layer above the Antarctic

4 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - naturally occurring gas in our atmosphere
Needed for photosynthesis to occur during the Carbon Cycle (photosynthesis) -plants take in (CO2), solar energy, and water and produce carbohydrate energy (sugars) and Oxygen

5 Water Vapor - water in the atmosphere
Key to understanding atmosphere processes Water vapor is the source of all precipitation Examples Clouds Fog Rain Snow Sleet hail

6 Changing state of matter
changing matter requires energy is transferred in the form of heat Latent heat – heat used doesn’t cause temperature change

7 How water changes states of matter in the atmosphere
All water passes through the atmosphere as water vapor Water changes from one state of matter to another Solid to liquid Liquid to gas Solid to gas

8 Greenhouse Effect – The warming of Earths surface and lower atmosphere when carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases absorb and reradiate (heat) energy

9 The atmosphere is divided into 4 main layers by temperature
Troposphere (bottom layer) Stratosphere (where important weather occur) Mesosphere Thermosphere (top layer) It generally gets colder as altitude increases Layers of the atmosphere are divided by temperature and height

10 Layers of the atmosphere

11 Weather – the state of the atmosphere at any given time and place
Climate – average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time

12 Earth-Sun relationship
Almost all energy that causes Earth’s weather and climate comes from the sun Unequal heating of Earth causes weather

13 Heat transfer Heat transfers in 3 ways
Conduction – transfer of heat through molecular activity (high to low temp) Convection – transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within something Radiation – transfer of heat in all directions Heat transfer

14 Solar radiation – when radiation strikes an object, 3 things happen
Energy is absorbed by the object Energy is transmitted and doesn’t add to the object Energy is reflected or bounced off the object

15 Reflection – when light bounces off an object
Scattering – when a large number of weaker rays are produced traveling in different direction

16 Other factors that influence energy coming into the atmosphere
Earth’s rotation – spinning Earth’s revolution – orbit around sun Earth’s orientation – how Earth is tilted on it’s axis in relation to the sun

17 Humidity – the amount of water vapor in the air
Relative humidity – the amount of water in the atmosphere. % of how much the air can hold Saturation – when the atmosphere has reached it’s maximum amount of water vapor it can hold at a temperature and pressure

18 Dew point The temperature when water vapor in the air condenses (changes) into a liquid from a gas

19 Cloud Formation As air rises in the atmosphere it expands and cools
When air reaches it’s dew point, clouds begin to form

20 Air compression When air pressure increases, air temperature rises
Motion of the gas molecules increases When air pressure decreases, air expands and temperature cools Motion of the gas molecules slows

21 Orographic Lifting when air is forced to rise and cool due to terrain features such as hills or mountains

22 Frontal Wedging When cold dense air acts as a barrier and causes warmer, less dense air to rise

23 Convergence When air masses flow together from more than 1 direction, air rises. Low pressure is the result

24 Localized convective heating
Unequal heating of Earth’s surface causes pockets of air to be warmed more than surrounding air Causes pockets of air to rise, forming thermals

25 Clouds – 3 basic types are classified on form and height
Cirrus Cumulus Stratus

26 High Clouds cirrus cirrostratus cirrocumulus Thin and white
Low precipitation May warn of approaching stormy weather cirrocumulus

27 Middle Clouds - alto altocumulus Altocumulus – large and dense
Altostratus – white or gray sheet covering sky Cumulonimbus - Infrequent light snow or drizzle altocumulus

28 Low clouds Stratocumulus Stratus – fog like layer covering sky
- Occasionally produce light precipitation Stratocumulus – rainy clouds Nimbostratus – main precipitation maker Cumulus - clouds with vertical development Stratocumulus

29 Fog – cloud with base at or near the ground
Form by Cooling – air over a cold surface Evaporation – when cool air moves over warm water (steaming)

30 How precipitation forms
Tiny cloud droplets grow in volume by about 1,000,000 times.

31 Cold cloud precipitation
Ice crystals contact with cloud droplets causing them to freeze Causes ice to grow into snowflakes Rain often begins as snow high in the clouds

32 Warm cloud precipitation
Large droplets moving through the clouds collide and join (coalesce) with smaller droplets

33 The type of precipitation that reaches Earth’s surface depends on temperature in the lower atmosphere Rain Snow Sleet Glaze Hail

34 Atmosphere key ideas Earth’s atmosphere is made up of a combination of gases. The major components of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon remain constant over time and space, while trace components like CO2 and water vapor vary considerably over both space and time. The atmosphere is divided into the thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere boundaries between these layers are defined by changes in temperature and height Pressure decreases exponentially with altitude in the atmosphere. Our knowledge about the atmosphere has developed based on data from a variety of sources, including direct measurements from balloons and aircraft as well as remote measurements from satellites.

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