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An Introduction to the Middle Ages and Geoffrey Chaucer

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1 An Introduction to the Middle Ages and Geoffrey Chaucer
English 12 & English 12 Advanced Woodland Hills High School Dr. Moschetta

2 Literature from This Unit
The Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer “Father of English Poetry” First author to write in English (Middle English) [previously Latin] Educated Government official – work took precedence over writing Worked on Canterbury Tales for 22 years; never finished

3 The Middle Ages – Norman Invasion
1066 – Duke William of Normandy One-day long battle Defeated and killed King Harold of England William felt entitled to the English throne (Edward, previous king, left no heirs) Combined Norman emphasis on law and order with Anglo Saxon democracy and culture

4 Feudalism Caste system (social class) Military system Property system
System of social behavior Top of the Ladder: William the Conqueror Barons, vassals, lower vassals, landless knights, serfs

5 City Classes Eventually many people left the country and moved to the cities City classes not defined by the feudal system Upper, middle, lower Middle class = merchant class who could afford what they wanted

6 Knighthood and Chivalry
Chivalry was a system of ideals that governed knights Loyalty to overlord Rules of warfare Adoration of a lady

7 Crusades & Hundred Years’ War
Series of religious wars to spread Christianity throughout Europe Struggle against Muslims Ultimately a failure Europe benefited from contact with higher civilization of Middle East Hundred Years’ War Battles between England and France Lasted over 100 years ( ) Feud stemming from Norman Invasion Militarily unsuccessful for Britain; did increase sense of nationalism

8 Black Death Highly contagious plague
Spread through cities from fleas of infested rats Killed 1/3 of people in England Gave more power to people in lower classes Caused labor shortage Lower class workers willing to work could negotiate wages and working conditions

9 Martyrdom of Sir Thomas a Becket
Thomas was a Norman who had great power in England as well as Catholic church (prime minister and Archbishop) Sided with the Pope rather than the King King Henry II (half joking) said he wanted Thomas put to death Henry’s knights killed Thomas in the cathedral at Canterbury

10 Martyrdom of Sir Thomas a Becket
Saint Thomas the Martyr Made a saint and martyred by a cult following who opposed the king People made pilgrimages to Canterbury to honor Saint Thomas’s memory The Canterbury Tales are a fictional collection of stories from a group of people making this pilgrimage to Canterbury

11 Worst Jobs in History Middle Ages jobs
(part 1) (part 2)

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