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Thermodynamics Chapter 10 ~Energy

Intro Most natural events involve a decrease in total energy and an increase in disorder. The energy that was “lost” was converted to heat. An increase in energy/motion decreases the overall order (organization) of the system. Energy is never created nor destroyed it simply changes form.

Entropy and heat Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of a system. Entropy gets the symbol S Heat energy is the kinetic energy of an object. The more motion in an object, the more random it becomes.

Thermodynamics Thermo – heat; dynamic- change or motion. Thermodynamics- conversion of heat energy (into other forms or objects). 1 st Law of Thermodynamics- the amount of energy in the universe is constant. Law of conservation of energy. 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics- Spontaneous processes, ones that happen on their own, involve an increase in entropy. Entropy in the universe is always increasing.

Heat ~is the total thermal energy of an object. Like all energy, heat is measured in joules (J) The terms hot, warm, cool and cold are always relative. Heat is only noticed when there is a transfer from one object to another. Heat always flows from hot to cold. This due to the 2 nd law of thermodynamics.

Kinetic Energy All atoms/molecules in any object are moving. The faster they are moving the more kinetic energy an object has. The heat energy or thermal energy is the total (sum of) kinetic energy of all particles in an object.

Temperature Temperature is a measure of the intensity of the heat energy present. This is measured by the average kinetic energy of all atoms/molecules present. In other words, it’s the average amount of heat energy that will transfer. Temperature is measured in Fahrenheit, Celsius or Kelvin.

Units of Temperature Here are some common temperatures in the different scales COMMON TEMPERATURESFCK freezing point of water320273 room temperature (comfortable)6820293 human body temperature98.637310 Boiling point of water212100373

Converting between temperature units Kelvin = 273 + Celsius (9/5 Celsius) + 32 = Fahrenheit Convert 65° F to C and K 18° C, 291 K Convert 301 K to C and F 28° C, 82° F

Two objects When two objects of different temperatures are next to each other heat will transfer from the higher temperature to the lower temperature object. By the 2 nd law of thermodynamics This is not necessarily the object with more energy. Consider a hot penny dropped into a large cup of room temperature water.

Penny and water Similar to the penny from the last lab, but we will exaggerate the size of the cup of water. The penny will have a higher temperature, intensity of heat energy, but the water will have to have more thermal energy due to the amount of water present.

Penny and water When dropped in, the penny sizzles, and the heat flows from the penny into the water. This is obvious, since you can now touch the penny. Even though the water had more total energy than the penny. This increases entropy.

Matter without heat energy Solids have the lowest amount of kinetic energy, however their particles still vibrate. If you cool it until molecules no longer vibrate... it is theorized this occurs at -273.15 o C or - 459 o F or 0 K This is called absolute zero. It is when all motion stops. Scientists have made it to 0.000 000 02 K

Third Law of Thermodynamics As the temperature of a body approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy approaches a minimum value. This minimum value is almost zero, but not quite. The law continues that… It is impossible for any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to absolute zero in a finite number of steps. Laws explain what, not why.

Problems with forcing extremes Whenever you are heating something, heat is escaping somewhere. Why can’t you melt steel on your stove? Natural gas flames are in the range of 1800-2000 o C Steel melts around 1400 o C, depending on the alloy. As it gets hotter more heat escapes to the surrounding area. You eventually reach a point where the amount of heat escaping the surrounding area equals the amount going into the substance. So it isn’t getting heated anymore.

Cont. Now of course you can correct this problem by getting a hotter flame, or by better insulating the area around the steel. However, you would run into this same problem again at a higher temperature. Further corrections would be needed.

Reverse the problem Whenever you are cooling something, (removing heat, there is NO cold energy) heat is always entering from somewhere. This is why there is such difficulty getting to absolute zero. How do you stop any heat from being able to enter a substance? No one knows. Which leads us right back to the Third Law of Thermodynamics. “It can’t be done” as a summary of all attempts so far.

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