# Light and the EM Spectrum In this unit: 1)Properties of light 2)Reflection 3)Colours 4)Refraction 5)Electromagnetic Spectrum.

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Light and the EM Spectrum In this unit: 1)Properties of light 2)Reflection 3)Colours 4)Refraction 5)Electromagnetic Spectrum

Part 1 – Properties of Light Light travels in straight lines: Laser

Light travels VERY FAST – around 300,000 kilometres per second. At this speed it can go around the world 8 times in one second.

Light travels much faster than sound. For example: 1)Thunder and lightning start at the same time, but we will see the lightning first. 2) When a starting pistol is fired we see the smoke first and then hear the bang.

We see things because they reflect light into our eyes: Homework

Luminous and non-luminous objects A luminous object is one that produces light. A non-luminous object is one that reflects light. Luminous objectsReflectors

Properties of Light summary 1)Light travels in ________ lines 2)Light travels much _______ than sound 3)We see things because they ________ light into our eyes 4)________ objects make light. 5)_________ are formed when light is blocked by an object

Part 2 - Reflection Reflection from a mirror: Incident ray Normal Reflected ray Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Mirror

The Law of Reflection Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection In other words, light gets reflected from a surface at ____ _____ angle that hits it. The same !!!

Regular vs. Diffuse Reflection Smooth, shiny surfaces have a regular reflection: Rough, dull surfaces have a diffuse reflection. Diffuse reflection is when light is scattered in different directions

Refraction Refraction is when waves _______ or slow down due to travelling in a different __________. A medium is something that waves will travel through. When a pen is placed in water it looks like it is _______ In this case the light rays are slowed down by the water and are bent causing the pen to look odd. The two mediums in this example are ______ and _______. Words – speed up, water, air, bent, medium

Were you paying attention? 1. What is the angle of incidence? 2.What is the angle of reflection? 3.What is, “the law of reflection”?

Were you paying attention? cont. 4.Why do things look dull? 5.Why do things look shiny? 6.Why does it look like a pencil is bent if you stick it in water? 7.When light moves from air to water it ______ ________ causing the light to bend. What’s that called?

Color White light is not a single color; it is made up of a mixture of the seven colors of the rainbow. We can demonstrate this by splitting white light with a prism: This is how rainbows are formed: sunlight is “split up” by raindrops.

The colors of the rainbow: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet

Adding colors White light can be split up to make separate colors. These colors can be added together again. The primary colors of light are red, blue and green: Adding blue and red makes magenta (purple) Adding blue and green makes cyan (light blue) Adding all three makes white again Adding red and green makes yellow

Seeing color The color an object appears depends on the colors of light it reflects. For example, a red book only reflects red light: White light Only red light is reflected

A white hat would reflect all seven colours: A pair of purple trousers would reflect purple light (and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue): Purple light White light

Using colored light If we look at a colored object in colored light we see something different. For example, consider a football kit: White light Shorts look blue Shirt looks red

In different colors of light this kit would look different: Red light Shirt looks red Shorts look black Blue light Shirt looks black Shorts look blue

Were you paying attention? 1.What would we see if all things absorbed light? 2.What would we see if all things reflected all colors of light? 3.Why does a Dodger hat look blue? 4.What colors are not reflected by the Dodger hat?

The Electromagnetic Spectrum The light that allows us to see is an electromagnetic wave. A wave is any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space. As a wave travels, its energy causes matter to move. Energy is carried away from its source by a wave.

Energy Transfer Some waves transfer energy through the vibration of the particles in a medium. A medium is a substance through which a wave can travel (can be a solid, liquid, or gas). Waves that require a medium are called mechanical waves. Examples are: water waves, sound waves, and seismic waves.

Electromagnetic Waves Visible light can be transferred without traveling through a medium (some kind of matter: water, air, a solid, etc). Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium. Some examples are: microwaves; radio waves, which transmit TV and radio signals; and X-rays, which are used by dentists and doctors. EM Waves can travel through air, water, and glass. They travel fastest through empty space. And sometimes through YOU!

Were you paying attention? 1.What is a wave? 2.Waves that require a medium to move through are called? __________ ___________ 3.What are some examples of these kinds of waves? 4.What EM waves are approximately the same length as a bee? ________ ________ 5.What EM waves are approximately the same length as the nucleus of an atom? ________ _________

What Makes EM Waves? Energy that is emitted (sent out) from vibrating electric charges produces electromagnetic waves. Power waves, radio/TV waves, and microwaves are produced by atoms or molecules vibrating slowly over macroscopic (large) distances. Infrared waves are produced by more rapidly vibrating atoms or molecules or by slowly vibrating electrons.

Electrons vibrating at a faster rate produce visible light. Even more rapidly vibrating electrons produce ultraviolet and X-rays. Gamma rays are produced by nuclear transitions (changes of the nucleus from one energy level to another).

It can generally be stated that the more massive the particle, the more slowly it vibrates. Therefore only tiny masses, such as electrons, can vibrate fast enough to produce high frequencies, whereas large masses, such as atoms and molecules, vibrate slowly enough to produce low frequencies The faster an object vibrates, the more energy it can release.

Were you paying attention? 1.EM waves are made by? 2.As particles get smaller and vibrate faster they create waves with _________ wavelengths and higher __________. 3.Which EM waves are produced by the largest and slowest vibrating particles? ________ _________ How do you know?

Lightening Speed… All electromagnetic waves travel as fast as light. Light and EM Waves travel at a speed of 300,000,000 m/s (or meters per second). About 186,000 miles per second. The wavelength of a wave is the distance between one point on a wave and the corresponding point on an adjacent wave. The frequency of a wave is the number of waves produced in a given amt. of time.

Waves with SHORT WAVELENGTHS AND HIGH FREQUENCIES carry more energy than waves with LONG WAVELENGTHS AND LOW FREQUENCIES. X-Rays carry more energy than Radio Waves.

Visible Light Def. = The narrow range of wavelengths and frequencies that humans can SEE! We see different wavelengths as different colors. Red light = longest wavelengths Violet light = shortest wavelengths (carries most energy) Visible Spectrum is the range of colors that makes up visible light (“Roy G. Biv”)

White Light and Ultraviolet Light White light occurs when all the colors of visible light are combined. Examples are sunlight and light from light bulbs. Ultraviolet (UV light) makes up about 10% of the sun’s energy. UV light carries more energy than visible light. Pros=UV light kills bacteria on food and surgical instruments Cons= Skin cancer, wrinkles

Were you paying attention? 1.If a wave has a short wavelength it will have a _________ frequency. 2.Which waves have more energy than visible light waves? (hint: Don’t stop at just one.) 3.Which color light has the lowest energy? _________ How do you know?

Were you paying attention? Cont. 1.Approximately how fast does light travel in space? 2.Which is faster radio waves or ultraviolet waves? 3.Why should you wear sunscreen if you will be out in the sun for a while?

Light and the Eye

How we use light to see. Special cells in the back of our eyes can detect a small range of EM waves called visible light. These waves are brought into our eye and focused on the back wall by a lens. The cells react and send signals through nerve cells to our brain where a picture is made. You will learn more about how the eye works next time.

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