2 Chapter Assignments Workbook and E-M Spectrum Activity Book Section 18.1: 535/math practice 1-3 and 538/9,10Section 18.2: 545/4, 5, &7Section 18.5: 562/3-7565-67/1-10, 32-35, and FCAT practice
3 Review from the last chapter: Two types of waves are:Regarding requiring a medium for travelMechanical and electromagneticElectromagnetic does not require a mediumRegarding shape of the waveTransverse and longitudinalElectromagnetic waves are transverse waves
4 Electromagnetic (E-M) Waves (LIGHT!) Do not require a medium through which to travelLight travels at 3.0 x 108 m/s in a vacuum or airIts wavelength and frequency varies according to the type of E-M wave
5 Higher frequency Greater energy More penetrationThe full range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum.Again, all of these forms move at 3.0 x 108 m/s in a vacuum (space) or air.One type to the left of another type has a longer wavelength and a lower frequency. For instance: radio waves have a longer wavelength than infrared.Blue light has a higher frequency than red light.Electromagnetic waves vary in wavelength and frequency
6 Properties of E-M Waves (Light) Light can act as a wave or a particleOnly a very small portion of the E-M Spectrum is visible to humans (between infrared rays and ultraviolet rays)Those types to the right of the visible portion are more penetrating and harmful (can be used to “look inside” or pass through objects); i.e., x rays and gamma rays
7 c = f l c = ?This formula is used to determine information about light.Let’s say that you know the wavelength of yellow light is 600 x 10-7 m. What is its frequency? Using c = f lf = c/ lf = 3.0 x 108 m/s / 600 x 10-7 mf = 3/600 x = x 1015f = 5 x 10-3 x 1015 = 5 x = 5x1012 Hz
8 Another problemFind the frequency of an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum with a wavelength of 0.02mf = c/ lf = 3.0 x 108 m / 0.02 mf = 1.5 x 1010 HzAssignment:535/math practice 1-3 and 538/9,10
9 Behavior of Light Materials can affect the behavior of light Transparent materials allow most light to pass throughTranslucent materials scatter light and makes figures appear unclear in appearanceOpaque materials either absorb or reflect all of the light that hits them. No light can pass through.
10 InteractionsWhen light strikes a new medium, the light can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted. When light is transmitted, it can be refracted, polarized, or scattered.
11 ReflectionWhen you look into a mirror, light reflects from the mirror, and you see yourselfBecause of total internal reflection, laser light can travel inside small glass (optical) fibers and carry information
12 RefractionBending of light as it passes from one medium into another. It makes the pencil look broken.
13 Newton and PrismsWhen white light passes through a prism you see a rainbow, because of refraction:Different colors bend at different anglesA rainbow is formed when water droplets in the air disperse light.
14 Colors of objectsIs dependent upon what the object is made of and on the color of light that strikes the object.See figure 24 (page 552) in your book
15 Primary Colors Primary colors of light are Red, green, blue pigment areMagenta, cyan,and yellow(See page 552In your book)
16 Red, blue, and green light added together produce white light. R, blue, and green are primary colors of lightRed plus green produce yellow, a secondary colorSince yellow contains both red and green, when you add yellow to blue, you get white light!What about cyan and red?Since cyan contains green and blue, when you add red, you get white light again!
17 MixingMix colors of light together, you get more light - additive process*Mix complementary colorsof light white light (blue& yellow or green & magenta)*Complementary colorsare opposite each otherin the color wheel.
18 Mix colors of pigment together, you get less light (it’s absorbed) - subtractive process. The primary colorsof pigment are thesecondary colorsof light!
19 Assignments: Section 18.2: 545/4, 5, &7 Section 18.5: 562/3-7 565-67/1-10, 32-35, and FCAT practice
20 Other tidbits about light: Microwaves are used to communicate between cell phonesLight is produced in the filament of an incandescent light bulb when electrons flow through the filamentSodium-vapor lights are used for lighting many streets and parking lotsFluorescent light tubes usually contain mercury vapor (which give off invisible uv light causing phosphors to emit visible light)
21 Light shining on objects See page 552What an object is made of and the color of light that strikes it determine the apparent color of the object.In white light all colors of the object are evidentWhen other colors of light shine on the object, the colors appear very different.
22 Laser LightLaser stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.Laser light is coherent - all the waves have the same: wavelength, direction, and coincidental peaks. This means IT IS VERY INTENSE & CAN BE HARMFUL!!!
23 Light - wave or particle? A wave when light interferes either constructively or destructivelyLight is turned “on” by constructive interference and “off” by destructive interference resulting in an interference pattern (shown at left).
24 Light acts as a particle when… Electrons are emitted from a metal caused by light striking the metal during the PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECTExamples:Light sensors in cameras, video cameras, automatic doors.Newton said it acted as particles because it travels in a straight line and casts shadows.
25 PolarizationOnly the blue waves can pass through the opening in the first card but not through the 2nd card.
26 Infra- and Ultra-Infra- means under, so infrared light is under red light (or to the left in the E-M spectrum)Ultra- means above, so ultraviolet light is above violet light (or to the right in the E-M spectrum)