Reasons to Leave Cuba Bad economy Starvation Clothing, medicine, and other necessities are hard to get Desire for freedom No voice in the gov’t
Cuba-History Small Size of Pennsylvania Fertile farmland 3rd largest sugar producer in the world Good harbors, location Gulf of Mexico Haven’t been on good terms with countries, this doesn’t promote trade
Independence Spanish Colony U.S. beat spain in Spanish-American War Cuba became free. Traded with the U.S. - prospered Some people did well, others earned low wages Over the years, they had many harsh rulers Dictator - a ruler who has complete power over the country
Communism 1950’s- Fulgencio Batista - rebel groups removed him from power. Fidel Castro - 1959 - overthrew Batista and took control of the country. Communist - gov’t ownership of business and land Many fled the country, came to U.S. and other caribbean islands. Soviet Union, communist, helped Cuba out. Not friends with U.S. U.S. relationship with Cuba deteriates, we start welcoming refugees.
Leaving Cuba, Returning to Cuba Exile - a person who leaves his or her homeland for another country because of political problems. Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. No longer helped out Cuba Food and supplies became scarce Tensions with U.S. heightened 1960-1970’s - Castro overhauled the school system. Many were illiterate - unable to read and write. Today - 96% literacy rate Uncertain future of the country??????????
Struggle from the Beginning Haiti - only country in the Americas formed from a successful revolt of enslaved Africans Once a colony of France 1790’s slave revolts began Leader - Tousaint L’Ouverture Helped banish slavery from Haiti in 1801
Troubled Years Many presidents became dictators when they came into power. One of the worst 1957 - Francois Duvalier - Papa Doc 1971 - Jean-Claude Duvalier - Baby Doc Forced to leave in 1986, but was followed by the same type of leaders During their rule Haiti became the poorest country in the Western hemisphere.
Life Many try to make their living on the farm. Small plots Over used land Creole - people of mixed ancestry Haitian culture blends African, French and West Indian tradition Creole - Also refers to the dialect that is spoken in Haiti A different version of a language that is spoken in a particular region Creole dialect is based on both African and French languages
Life City Life Port-au-Prince - Haiti’s capital Wealthy live on the hills in wooden houses Middle class also live fairly well Poor live in tiny home made of crumbling concrete.
Future 1990 - Jean-Bertrand Aristide - elected president, long defended the rights of the poor 7 months later the military forced Aristide to leave. Attacked his supporters, fled Many came to the U.S., a lot kids Many were turned back
Good and Bad 1994 - Aristide came back to Haiti Many thought this would turn things around 1998 - Rene Preval was president, bad times ensued. 2001 - Aristide came back into power. 2006 - Preval was again elected.
Section 3 Puerto Rico A Cultural Identity of a People
Puerto Rico and the U.S. Puerto Ricans are U.S. Citizens Puerto Ricans are U.S. Citizens Individuals with certain rights and responsibilities under a particular government Individuals with certain rights and responsibilities under a particular government Can’t vote in presidential election Can’t vote in presidential election Don’t pay taxes Don’t pay taxes Only a non-voting member in Congress Only a non-voting member in Congress Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the Unites States. Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the Unites States. A place that has its own government but also has strong ties to another country. A place that has its own government but also has strong ties to another country. Can move to and from the U.S. as they please. Can move to and from the U.S. as they please.
Life 70% of people live in cities 70% of people live in cities Many work in factories or tourism industry Many work in factories or tourism industry San Juan - capital city San Juan - capital city Luxury hotels - Skyscrapers - Old Spanish style buildings - 450 year old Spanish Catholic Church Luxury hotels - Skyscrapers - Old Spanish style buildings - 450 year old Spanish Catholic Church
Commonwealth 1951 - Puerto Ricans adopted their own constitution 1951 - Puerto Ricans adopted their own constitution A statement of a country’s basic laws and values A statement of a country’s basic laws and values Gave them their own lawmakers, but they were still bound to the Unites States laws Gave them their own lawmakers, but they were still bound to the Unites States laws
What to do? Many Puerto Ricans feel torn between the U.S. and Puerto Rico Many Puerto Ricans feel torn between the U.S. and Puerto Rico Some think statehood is the way to go Some think statehood is the way to go Good Good Vote in U.S. elections, earn more money Vote in U.S. elections, earn more money Bad Bad Would be the poorest state in the union Would be the poorest state in the union Would have to pay taxes Would have to pay taxes Puerto Ricans voted in 1993 and 1998 NOT to become a state Puerto Ricans voted in 1993 and 1998 NOT to become a state Some Puerto Ricans would like independence Some Puerto Ricans would like independence Their own country Their own country
BENEFITSDRAWBACKS COMMON- WEALTH U.S. aid, investment, no federal taxes Confused cultural identity, second class citizenship STATEHOOD More U.S. investment, congressional representation, more political power Might lose Spanish language and culture, high federal taxes would lower incomes NATIONHOOD Keep separate identity, Spanish language and culture, stronger cultural ties to Caribbean Weak nation without U.S. defense, might lose U.S. investment and aid