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DNA "The Blueprint of Life".

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Presentation on theme: "DNA "The Blueprint of Life"."— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA "The Blueprint of Life"

2 Vocabulary Nucleotide Transcription Base pairing RNA Polymerase
Chromatin Promoter Histone Intron Replication Exon DNA Polymerase Codon mRNA Translation rRNA Anticodon tRNA Mutation


4 DNA stands for... DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
DNA song 2:47 or They might be Giants—Cells 2:42 Time for a Song!

5 DNA FACTS established by James Watson and Francis Crick
Shape of a double helix

6 codes for your genes  (traits/allleles)
made of repeating subunits called nucleotides

7 What is a nucleotide? Has three parts: PHOSPHATE
DEOXYRIBOSE (5 Carbon sugar) BASE  (A,T,G,C)

8 Base-Pair Rule Adenine <==> Thymine Guanine <==> Cytosine
The sides of the DNA ladder are phosphate & sugar held together by  hydrogen bonds

9 Mnemonic Come up with a memory device/slogan/phrase to remember the 4 nitrogen bases and how they pair up.

10 Review Quiz!

11 Base Pair Rule One side:     A   T   A      T   C   A      T   G   C      G   G   G Other side:

12 AAT GAC CCG TAG GGC GAT Let’s Practice
Fill In the complementary base pairs AAT GAC CCG TAG GGC GAT


14 DNA Structure Video Clip
1st part of Crash course—structure and replication

15 DNA Coloring Biology Corner

16 DNA Candy Ladders District Lab Manual

17 Let's Review What We Know About DNA
1.  DNA stands for:   De _____ ribo ______  acid 2.  What is the shape of DNA? _______________ 3.  Who established the structure of DNA?  ____________ 4.  Adenine always pairs with _______________ 5.  The sides of the DNA ladder are deoxyribose and _____ 6.  Guanine always pairs with _____________ 7.  What is the complimentary sequence:   A A T  G  C A 8.  The two sides of DNA are held together by _______ bonds. 9.  DNA is composed of repeating subunits called ______________________ 10.  What are the 4 bases that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder? _______________________________________

18 DNA REPLICATION the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself (cell division) SEMI-CONSERVATIVE - half of the old strand is saved

19 Steps of DNA Replication
1 Enzyme Helicase separates the DNA strands 2 Enzymes called DNA polymerases add the compatible nucleotides (found floating in nucleus) to the original strands Hydrogen bonds form between the new nitrogen bases 3 DNA polymerases are released 2 DNA molecules, identical, are created


21 Errors in Replication DNA replication usually occurs with great accuracy. Only about 1 error for every BILLION pairs of nucleotides (for example: retyping your Biology text book 1000 times and only making 1 typo) When a mistake occurs, the base sequence is changed; this is called a MUTATION

22 DNA Replication Video 2nd part of crash course

23 Review Quiz #2

24 DNA Replication Lab District Manual

25 Protein Synthesis A gene (a segment on a DNA strand) codes for a specific hereditary item (ie hair color). The gene is the instruction for the making of the protein that creates that item (ie blond hair). To get the instructions to the ribosome (where proteins are made) DNA uses RNA to deliver the genetic information to the ribosome where the protein is created. This entire process= PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

26 RNA - the messenger *single strand *ribose sugar *contains no thymine, uracil instead *follows base pair rules DNA:   A  T  A   G  C  G RNA:  

27 RNA carries the "message" to the ribosomes, where proteins are made

28 DNA --> RNA --> Protein
Proteins are the building blocks of the organism (traits)

29 Transcription -  process where RNA is made from DNA
Translation - process where proteins are made from RNA

30 Steps of Transcription
1 RNA polymerase binds to a promoter The DNA strands unwind and separate 2 RNA polymerase adds free RNA nucleotides that are compatible with the DNA strand Unlike DNA replication, transcription only codes for a particular gene (not the entire strand) 3 RNA polymerase reaches a termination signal that marks the end of the gene RNA polymerase releases, DNA rewinds and the new RNA strand goes on to perform its job

31 Transcription and Translation Video Clip
Amoeba sisters: protein synthesis, the lean mean ribosome machines

32 Transcription and Translation Coloring
Biology corner

33 Types of RNA mRNA Messenger RNA
A single strand, carries instructions to ribosome rRNA Ribosomal RNA Part of the structure of the ribosome tRNA Transfer RNA Transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein

34 Quick Review Quiz #3

35 How the Code Works The combination of A,T,G,C determines what traits you might have..... C A T C A T   =  purple hair T A C T A C  =  yellow hair

36 Think of the bases of DNA like letters.
Letters form words.... Words form sentences....               *endless                combinations

37 The Genetic Code 3 adjacent nucleotides (‘letters’) in mRNA specify a particular amino acid (‘word’). 3 nucleotides also = a codon. There are 64 codons that encode most organisms. GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG are all codons that code for the amino acid, Alanine.

38 What would the amino acid be for the following codons:

39 Steps of Translation—the making of Proteins
1 tRNA and mRNA join together Codons match up with anticodons on the tRNA 2 Polypeptide chain is put together The amino acids that are coded for begin to make a chain 3 The chain continues to grow as more amino acids are added as the codons instruct 4 The ribosome reaches a ‘stop’ codon and the polypeptide chain is complete.

40 DNA Song Parr

41 Protein Synthesis Coloring

42 Transcription and Translation in Action
District Lab Manual

43 Packet Review, Protein Synthesis and RNA

44 Simulation Protein Synthesis
District Lab Manual

45 Turkey Time District Lab Manual

46 Protein Power Game Science Spot

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