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CHAPTER 12 COOKIES AND SESSIONS. INTRO HTTP is a stateless technology Each page rendered by a browser is unrelated to other pages – even if they are from.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 12 COOKIES AND SESSIONS. INTRO HTTP is a stateless technology Each page rendered by a browser is unrelated to other pages – even if they are from."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRO HTTP is a stateless technology Each page rendered by a browser is unrelated to other pages – even if they are from the same website. There is no way with just HTTP to track users, create shopping carts, or personalize web pages.

3 MAINTAINING STATE Tools: Hidden form fields Query strings Cookies Sessions

4 THE OPTIONS HIDDEN FORM FIELDS Example: Use $_GET or $_POST State data is temporarily stored. QUERY STRINGS Example: Creates $_GET variables that the next page can use. Storage is also temporary

5 THE OPTIONS COOKIES Store data in the user's Web browser May be disabled or deleted by the user Can be made to last longer SESSIONS Store data on the server itself More secure More robust (can store more data)

6 A LOGIN PAGE 1.A form submits the login data 2.A script validates and confirms that the necessary information was submitted 3.A database query compares the submitted information against the stored information 4.Cookies or sessions store data that reflect a successful login 5.The cookie or session will check the login status so the user won't have to login on each new page

7 USING COOKIES Cookies are files sent by a server to store information on the user's machine. Examples of cookies PHPSESSID=D1F15245171203E8670487F020544490 user_id=87 userName=jsmith passwordCookie=opensesame To use cookies, they must be sent from the server to the client before any other HTML is sent.

8 HOW COOKIES WORK A cookie is a name/value pair that is stored in a browser. On the server, a web application creates a cookie and sends it to the browser. On the client, the browser saves the cookie and sends it back to the server every time it accesses a page from that server. By default, cookies only last until the user closes his or her web browser. However, cookies can be set to persist in the user’s browser for up to three years. Some users disable cookies in their browsers. Browsers generally accept only 20 cookies from each site and 300 cookies total. Browsers can also limit each cookie to 4 kilobytes.

9 THE SETCOOKIE FUNCTION setcookie($name, [$value, $expire, $path, $domain, $secure, $httponly]) Setting a cookie in the browser: $name = 'userid'; $value = 'rharris'; $expire = time()+60*60*24*30; $path = '/'; setcookie($name, $value, $expire, $path);

10 SETCOOKIE PARAMETERS setcookie($name, [$value, $expire, $path, $domain, $secure, $httponly]) The setcookie parameter $expire : default = 0; lasts until user closes browser window; a per-session cookie. other timestamp values are persistent cookies. time in seconds since 1/1/70 or relative to the present using time() 30 minutes = 1800 seconds setcookie (name, value, time()+1800);

11 SETCOOKIE PARAMETERS setcookie($name, [$value, $expire, $path, $domain, $secure, $httponly]) The setcookie parameter $path: the path on the server the cookie is available to if set to '/', the cookie is available to all directories on the current server default is the current directory (that set the cookie)

12 SETCOOKIE PARAMETERS setcookie($name, [$value, $expire, $path, $domain, $secure, $httponly]) The setcookie parameter $host: the specific domain the cookie is available to '' makes the cookie visible within default is the name of the server that is setting the cookie

13 SETCOOKIE PARAMETERS setcookie($name, [$value, $expire, $path, $domain, $secure, $httponly]) The setcookie parameters: $secure: 1 means the cookie is available only if being sent using HTTPS default is 0 $httponly: 1 means the cookie is only available through HTTP/HTTPS and not through client-side scripts default is 0

14 THE LOGIN PROCESS Login Form Validate Form Input Query Database Set Cookies or Start Session OK Valid Login Incomplete Invalid login

15 SETTING COOKIES AFTER A SUCCESSFUL LOGIN if (….) { // Login successful // Set the cookies: setcookie ('user_id', $data['user_id']); setcookie ('first_name', $data['first_name']); // Redirect: redirect_user('logged_in.php'); }

16 REDIRECTING Depending on whether or not a user has successfully logged in, the code should redirect to the appropriate page. Redirection uses the header() function with the 'Location: ' string. Best practice is to use an absolute URL here: http://... header('Location: ged_in.php');

17 DEFINING A URL DYNAMICALLY Better yet, instead of hard-coding it, determine it dynamically. The $_SERVER superglobal array contains several values set by the web server. The relevant ones here are: $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] which gives the host name $_SERVER['PHP_SELF'] which refers to the current script including its directory name

18 DEFINING A URL DYNAMICALLY (CONT') We also use the two functions: dirname() which returns just the directory i.e. /Ch12/ rtrim() which removes spaces or the given characters $url = 'http://'. $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST']. dirname($_SERVER['PHP_SELF']); $url = rtrim($url, '/\\'); $page='index.php'; $url.= '/'. $page;

19 DEFINING A URL DYNAMICALLY (CONT') The finish with: header("Location: $url"); exit(); //don't process remaining script

20 ACCESSING COOKIES To retrieve a value from a cookie that has been sent, use the suberglobal variable $_COOKIE[ ] setcookie ('userName', 'Smitherman'); can be referred to as: $_COOKIE['userName'] but only from another page!

21 TESTING THE COOKIE VALUES <?php # Script 12.4 - logged_in.php // The user is redirected here from login.php. // If no cookie is present, redirect the user: if (!isset($_COOKIE['user_id'])) { //redirect to index or login page } // Set the page title and include the HTML header: $page_title = 'Logged In!'; include ('../includes/header.php'); // Print a customized message: echo " Logged In! You are now logged in, ".$_COOKIE['first_name']."! Logout "; include ('includes/footer.html'); ?>

22 DELETING A COOKIE Cookies will automatically expire: when the user's browser closes when the expiration date/time is met Cookies can be manually deleted by: resetting the value parameter to '' setting an expiration date in the past

23 THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT COOKIES After a cookie is set, it isn't available until either the page is reloaded or another page is accessed. After a cookie is deleted, it exists until either the page is reloaded or another page has been accessed.

24 SESSIONS Data generated by the server and stored on the server. To start a session or resume a previous session: session_start(); This must be called before any HTML is sent back to the browser. The function will try to send a cookie called PHPSESSID and a value to the browser.

25 SESSIONS Once the session starts, the superglobal $_SESSION[ ] array can be used: $_SESSION['user_id'] = $data['user_id']; $_SESSION['first_name'] = $data['first_name'];

26 SESSIONS Any pages that attempt to use the $_SESSION[ ] superglobal, must have sessions enabled with session_start(); session_start(); will try to retrieve the PHPSESSID value from the stored cookie, or it will create a new session If a new session is started, any previous session data will no longer be available.

27 SESSIONS Session variables are available as soon as they are enabled (unlike cookies.) A session variable can be assigned a value and then referred to from within the same script (without reloading.)

28 SESSIONS Three kinds of information are stored: 1.The session identifier, PHPSESSID, is stored as a cookie by default 2.The session data which is stored as a text file on the server 3.The $_SESSION array, which is how the script accessed the data in the text file

29 CONTROLLING THE SESSION COOKIE To control the session cookie, use the function: session_set_cookie_params($lifetime, $path, $domain, $secure, $httponly) $lifetime: of the cookie in seconds; required parameter $path: the sever path that the cookie is available to; default is current directory of the script setting the cookie. The other three parameters don’t usually need to be changed.

30 CONTROLLING THE SESSION COOKIE Start a session with custom cookie parameters: $lifetime = 60 * 60 * 24 * 365; // 1 year in seconds session_set_cookie_params($lifetime, '/'); session_start(); Note: this must occur before any HTML code is returned and session_set_cookie_params() must precede session_start();

31 CONTROLLING THE SESSION COOKIE The global $_SESSION variable: an associative array that stores the data for the session. How to set and get scalar variables: Set a variable in a session $_SESSION['product_code'] = 'MBT-1753'; Get a variable from a session $product_code = $_SESSION['product_code'];

32 DELETING SESSION VARIABLES 1.Access the existing session using session_start(); 2.Reset the $_SESSION array 3.Use destroy_session(); to remove session data from server 4.Specify that the session cookie expires. **NOTE: There is an unset() function, but don’t use it on the entire $_SESSION array, as it causes unpredictable results.

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