Evaluating Energy Resources U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy; – 84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas); – 7% from nuclear power; – 9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass).
Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago, and account for about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S. The fossil fuels used in energy generation are: – Natural gas, which is 70 - 80% methane (CH 4 ) – Liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum – Coal - a solid mixture of large molecules with a H/C ratio of about 1 www.lander.edu/rlayland/Chem%20103/chap_12.ppt
Energy resources removed from the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Coal is cheaper, gas is cleaner, oil is the highest quality Coal: $0.85 per million Btu Natural Gas: $2.18 per million Btu Crude Oil: $2.97 per million Btu
Problems with Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources – At projected consumption rates, natural gas and petroleum will be depleted before the end of the 21st century Impurities in fossil fuels are a major source of pollution Burning fossil fuels produce large amounts of CO 2, which contributes to global warming www.lander.edu/rlayland/Chem%20103/chap_12.ppt
1. Oil 2. Coal 3. Natural Gas 4. Nuclear Energy
Oil Extraction Primary Oil Recovery – Drill well – Pump out oil that flows by gravity into well Secondary Oil Recovery – Inject water into nearby water to force oil into well.
Who Has the Oil?Reserves North America75.7 South and Central America89.5 Western Europe18.9 Former Soviet Countries58.9 Middle East673.6 Africa75.4 Far East and Oceania43.0 Total1,033.2
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – Set up in 1960 so developing countries would get a fair price for the resource. – Control 67% of world’s oil – Saudi Arabia (#1), Iraq (#2), Iran, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Qatar, and Venezuela
Oil in U.S. 2.3% of world reserves uses nearly 30% of world reserves; 65% for transportation; increasing dependence on imports. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
What a Barrel of Persian Gulf Oil Really Costs U.S. Consumers $30 in initial costs + $61 for military support services = $91 per barrel of oil (Prentice Hall 2005) Oil near $119 after report of Iranian boat firing – MSNBC April. 25, 2008 Currently around $85/barrel (2011)
Alternative forms of Oil Oil Shale Tar Sand Oil Shale (kerogen) & Tar Sand (bitumen) Different forms of rock/sand that can be transformed (crushed/heated or pressurized) to be use like crude oil. PROS: In Canada & U.S CONS: Need ½ barrel of oil to extract & purify – Uses large amounts of water – Pollutes groundwater, air, etc.
Extracting Coal from the Ground Subsurface Mining: miners work in tunnels to get coal from underground. – Most dangerous, most laborious Surface Mining: Coal lies near surface – Area Strip Mining – on flat terrain – Contour Strip Mining – on hilly/mtn terrain – Open Pit Mining – near surface but dig down Then Transported, Washed, Dried, Shipped again
Extracting Coal: Underground Mining for coal buried 200-1,000 ft. deep
Coal Coal (solid) Changing form is slightly better for pollution, but lessens net E Coal gasification Synthetic natural gas (SNG) Coal liquefaction Liquid fuels http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_K8jXrtPZQ Sequestration and climate change applications
Coal Sequestration How can we link coal sequestration and tertiary oil recovery? SciFi! Can we ship our CO2 to another planet and make an atmosphere???
Sources of Natural Gas Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply. Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%); 90–95% of natural gas used in U.S. is domestic 255,000 miles of pipeline www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt
Natural Gas Extraction Tap gas field – Propane & butane are liquefied (liquefied petroleum gas) Stored in pressurized tanks Energy source in rural areas! Remaining gas (methane) is dried to remove water, cleansed to remove impurities, pressurized & piped to homes. Odor is added to detect leaks Liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be shipped in refrigerated tanker ships Lose ¼ of net energy when this is done