2 Fossil FuelsEnergy sources formed from the remains of once living organisms.Oil, coal, natural gas, oil shale, tar sands.Also known as hydrocarbons.
3 Recipe for Oil/Natural Gas Formation 1. IngredientsLarge accumulation of organic matter, marine microorganisms(dinoflagellates) Where will we get these conditions today?-Continental shelves-Texas, Louisiana, offshore California, Gulf of Mexico, Alaska??
5 2. Mixing Instructions Buried rapidly in anaerobic conditions. What does anaerobic mean?without oxygenWhy is this important?reduces decomposition by bacteria
6 3. Baking Instructions Heat and pressure to cook the mixture. How much? As depth increases we get more natural gas and less oil in the oil trap.Time- How long? Youngest rocks that oil has been extracted from is 1-2 million years old. Oldest 1.5 billion until now, may find older deposits, but not in great quantities.
7 Oil TrapsOil traps:Must be porous and permeable to become a reservoir rock.Structural traps- Rock layers have been changed or deformed in such a way as to provide a collection site for the crude oil(domes folds and faults)Stratigraphic traps-Layers of rock that contain oil due to their shape.(Lenses, unconformities)
14 Proved reserves (billion barrels) Greatest Oil Reserves by Country, 2006RankCountryProved reserves (billion barrels)1.Saudi Arabia264.32.Canada178.83.Iran132.54.Iraq115.05.Kuwait101.56.United Arab Emirates97.87.Venezuela79.78.Russia60.09.Libya39.110.Nigeria35.911.United States21.412.China18.313.Qatar15.214.Mexico12.915.Algeria11.416.Brazil11.217.Kazakhstan9.018.Norway7.719.Azerbaijan7.020.India5.8Top 20 countries90.2Rest of world68.1World total1,292.5NOTES: Proved reserves are estimated with reasonable certainty to be recoverable with present technology and prices.Source: Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 103, No. 47 (Dec. 19, 2005). From: U.S. Energy Information Administration. .
15 Oil Consumption Resource measured in barrels (bls) = 42 gallons 400 billion barrels of oil consumed since beginning to use oil1/2 of this was used just in the decade of the 70’s.Reserves of approximately 700 billion barrels of oil (1985)Resources unevenly distributedU.S. consumes about 5.5 billion barrels a year.
16 Global Oil Consumption Global Oil Demand: 75 million barrels/dayU.S.: (2005) million barrels/day18.6(2012)U.S. Imports: million barrels/dayU. S. Household gallons/dayStrategic Reserves 570 million barrels stored (60 day supply)China: million barrels/day10.3 (in 2012)We have approximately 5% of global population but use approximately 25% of world oil