Push factors Cause people to leave the places where they live. What are some examples of push factors? brainstorm...
low wages shortages of food overcrowded living conditions political persecution high crime rates wartime conditions lack of economic opportunities degradation of agricultural land the depletion of forests or water
Pull factors Conditions that attract people to new places? What are some examples of pull factors? Brainstorm...
high wages good educational opportunities havens from political or religious persecution high standards of living plentiful resources such as fresh water, forests, wildlife, or agricultural land When was the last time you took advantage and not for granted your surroundings
Did you know? 2 million people migrate and settle permanently in other countries; millions more migrate, but settle only temporary. Do you think these numbers are likely to grow or decline in the future? Tell me why?
4 Questions to ask about any migration: 1. Is the migration voluntary or involuntary? 2. Is the migration permanent or temporary? 3. Is the migration legal or illegal 4. Is the migration international or internal? Maybe you have already experienced migration? In a sense, are we not all immigrants?
migration takes many forms... For example, it may be voluntary, permanent, legal and internal OR It may be involuntary, temporary, illegal, and international
Voluntary Migration B/w 1800 and 1914, approximately 70 million people left Europe and migrated, by choice, to Canada, the United States, Australia, Argentina, and other countries. We are examples of voluntary migration Each year since 2000, Canada has welcomed more than 220 000 permanent, international immigrants, most of whom are voluntary migrants. Immigrants have become an essential part of Canada.
Involuntary Migration The movement of people, against their will, to a different location. Throughout history involuntary migration has occurred and unfortunately, occurs far too often today. B/w 1500 and 1810, b/w 11 and 15 million people were forcefully taken out of Africa to be sold as slaves in the Americas.
2 causes of Involuntary Migration Geopolitical Environmental
Geopolitical Iraq: About 2 million people have felt so unsafe in Iraq that they have left the country entirely and become refugees. Look at Fig. 8-4 Another 2 million people have been displaced internally as a result of conflicts among the country’s three main religious/ethnic groups. Look at Fig. 8-5
Environmental South of the Sahara desert is the Sahel (desert shore) stretching 4000 km across 15 countries. fig. 8-6 Successive droughts since 1970s, plus overuse of grasslands, forests, and water resources are lowering the water table, degrading soil, and causing the vegetation to disappear. Desertification = people who live there are forced to move away.
Legal Migration Countries accepting immigrants have clear rules that determine who will be accepted or rejected. The rules that a country chooses reflect that country’s economic and social needs. What are 5 ways that legal immigrants can come to Canada?
Illegal Migration Many people in the Near Core and Far Periphery and in many parts of the New Core see the nations of the Old Core as lands of unlimited opportunity. 1. Illegal entry - sneaking into the target country by land or water. 700 000-850 000 enter US illegally each year 50 000 Africans enter southern Europe each year; 1000s more perish when boat proves unseaworthy Approx. 500 000 from eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union enter western Europe by land each year 2. Violation of a country’s terms of legal entry. example, tourist visa, student visa
Migration Issues Brain Drain Integrating immigrants in receiving countries p.122 Smuggling of illegal immigrants Replacement migration Ongoing global refugee crisis p.124 (a refugees account)