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Decolonization and Independence in Africa and Asia circa 1900-1990 Push for Freedom from European Imperialism.

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Presentation on theme: "Decolonization and Independence in Africa and Asia circa 1900-1990 Push for Freedom from European Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decolonization and Independence in Africa and Asia circa 1900-1990 Push for Freedom from European Imperialism

2 Stage 1 European Imperialism Ends  Europeans leave or forced out  Power Vacuum created- no one is in charge  Internal conflict begins immediately

3 Stage 2- Civil War / Internal Conflict  Brief or extended period of fighting  Religious, ethnic, or political divisions  Chaos and violence  Human rights atrocities- children soldiers, ethnic cleansing, genocide  Refugee camps in other countries  Sometimes results in partition – division into separate countries


5 Refugee Camps impact other countries

6 Stage 3- New dictatorship  No political freedoms  Poverty, unemployment, gap in wealth  Rigged elections, rampant corruption  Disease outbreaks (Malaria, AIDS, typhoid, cholera, waterborne parasites)  Similar to conditions during imperialism

7 Stage 4 Progress or Rev. Cycle? Patterns of Revolution Option 1 Continuation of dictatorship Option 2 Dictator removed cycle starts over Option 3 Progress begins-> move towards democracy and stronger economy

8 Decolonization 1900-1990s  Africans and Indians pushed for independence  Renaissance of African and Indian culture  World War II weakened European Empires  Europeans no longer have weapon advantage  Colonies became expensive to run  Protesters supported end of colonial rule  Leaders like Gandhi organize resistance movements

9 Decolonization and the Cold War  USSR and USA compete for allies  USSR and USA try to influence newly independent countries.  Secret conflict between CIA and KGB  Capitalist countries make deals with USA  Communist countries make deals with USSR

10 Historical Examples of Decolonization: India

11 Indian Independence 1947- Partition of India

12 Do Now  Define Civil Disobedience in your notes. What are 3 examples of civil disobedience from history? Civil Disobedience Timeline - Henry David Thoreau- wrote essay “Civil Disobedience” - Gandhi influenced by this essay - MLK influenced by Gandhi and Thoreau - Mandela influenced by all of these men

13 Post Imperialist India  1947 Partition of India- India (Hindu), West Pakistan (Muslim), and East Pakistan (Muslim)  1947-1960s Fighting continues between Hindus and Muslims along the border  1970s Pakistani Civil War- East Pakistan breaks away and becomes Bangladesh with help from India

14 Modern India and Pakistan 1980s – Present  Conflict over Kashmir region  India dealing with acts of terrorism connected to Pakistan  Pakistan dealing with problems related to border with Afghanistan  Nationalist feelings in both countries  Both have nuclear weapons








22 Modern Africa

23 Historical Examples of Decolonization: South Africa  British give independence to European settlers  Apartheid established- racial segregation  1920s-1990s- Black African protesters jailed  1990- Nelson Mandela freed  1994- Apartheid ends  Economic Improvements

24 Ghana  Problems after Europeans left: - Political Instability - Military Dictatorships - Weak Economy - Corruption – Disease - Cycle of Revolution and Dictatorship  Signs of Progress - Democracy established - Improving economy - Better schools

25 Rwanda  Belgians ruled colony with Tutsi help  Tutsi- 30% Hutu- 70%  Independence 1962 Hutus control government  Years of tension led to Civil War in 1990s  Hutu president assassinated  Hutus begin genocide in April 1994  Around 800,000 - 900,000 Tutsis and non cooperating Hutus killed

26 Kenya  Problems after Europeans left: - Famine / Poverty - Weak Economy - Cycle of Revolution and Dictatorship  Signs of Progress: - Improving Economy  Currently still struggling with democracy

27 Nigeria  Problems after Europeans left: - Civil War between Igbo, Hausa, and Yoruba tribes - Military Dictatorships – No Democracy - Weak Economy - Disease  Signs of Progress: - Stronger economy - End of Civil War  Currently- corruption, lack of freedom of speech, potential for new Civil War involving religion  Problems with Boko Haram

28 Democratic Republic of Congo  Problems after Europeans left: - Political Instability / Civil War / Coups - Ethnic Conflict - Military Dictatorships - Weak economy – Disease  Current Issues - Slave labor being used to gather natural resources - War lords control certain regions - Civil War and ethnic conflict recently ended

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