3 Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre Things we do:Education: civil liberties and human rights presentations.Human Rights Education Project speakers, materials, in-services and teacher support.Research: contemporary civil liberties and human rights issues concerning Albertans.Providing Information to the PublicResearch and Education - Not Advocacy
4 Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre Some of our publications:Sexual Harassment in SchoolDiscrimination, Human Rights and YouFreedom to Be: Understanding LGBT YouthFreedom of Expression and All that JazzThe Rights Angle: Human Rights Using the Newspaper
5 Hopes and Dreams: Stories from Young Refugees Teacher and Student MaterialsVideo
6 Table of Contents Hopes and Dreams Who are Refugees? Why Refugees LeaveLife in a Refugee CampLaws Governing and Protecting RefugeesSettling in Canada
9 80% are women and children Who are Refugees?Just like you and I21.8 million refugees50% are children80% are women and childrenRefugees are individual people with individual likes, dislikes, hopes and dreams just like each one of us. People who have become refugees were at one time living very normal lives in their home countries. They had had a home, families, and went to work or school every day.Many are women and children – this is partly because women have a more difficult time leaving a country than men; some have to get permission which can be difficult without an accompanying male.
10 Definition of RefugeeA person who has “a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country…”Refugee Convention / Immigration ActWell founded fear of persecution (race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group or political opinion)Outside his country of nationalityBecause of this fear is unable or unwilling to get protection from his country of originWell foundedwell founded means that there is a subjective element – ie in the mind of the person there is fear that they will be harmedand also an objective element – ie there is evidence showing a valid basis for that fear
11 Refugees and Immigrants Immigrants mostly choose to leave countryImmigrants have job qualifications, family members in Canada or money to investRefugees leave out of necessityRefugees do not choose where to go and often lose family members along the wayRefugees come from a range of experiences, nationalities, ethnicities, religions and backgroundsDifficult to group refugees together because they don’t have a common experience except looking for a safe haven.
12 Why Refugees Leave Political and social context War, ethnic cleansing, genocideTorturePolitical upheavalGender persecutionReligious persecutionPersecution based on sexual orientation
13 The Refugee Convention After World War II many refugeesUnited Nations devised the Convention Relating to the status of Refugees in 1951Spells out a set of basic human rights for refugeesRecognizes need for international cooperation and shared responsibilityCommonly called the Refugee Convention. It and its 1967 protocol have been signed by 140 countries.
14 The Refugee Convention Creates an international duty to offer asylum to refugeesCanada was not always receptive to refugeesAfter WWII Canada had one of the worst records of Jewish refugee resettlement in the world.Between 1933 and 1939, Canada accepted only 4000 of the 800,000 Jews who had escaped from Nazi controlled Europe.
16 How many refugeesTo uphold its obligations Canada took in 23,000 to 30,400 refugees in 2002Canada came in 11th, internationally, in terms of money contributed to refugee-aidCanada contributes 42 million; US contributed 570 million and came in number one in contributions.However on a per capita basis: Norway, Sweden and Denmark surpass the US and Canada for monetary contributions. (Canada US contribute $2 per capita or less, while Norway contributes $16 per capita)internally displaced means that they are not formally recognized as refugees and live in legal limbo (do not have the means to leave their own country and so are not recognized as refugees)
17 Life in a Refugee CampRefugees flee to neighbouring countries, often developing nationsMeans the world’s poorest countries are harbouring refugeesSudan: Aicha, a displaced woman in Ryad camp, uses a fuel-efficient stove at the UNHCR centre for women. She was trained by UNHCR and now trains other women on how to use fuel-efficient stoves. The stoves, made of donkey dung, mud and water, use up to 60 per cent less firewood than traditional methods. The need to reduce firewood collection is particularly important as many women have been attacked and raped on their way to collect wood. UNHCR / H. Caux
18 Life in a Refugee CampGovernment often puts refugees in a campCamp life often has authoritarian administrationRestricted land use, shortage of food
19 Human Rights and Refugees Many different areas of law and policies govern rights of refugeesInternational lawCanadian lawThe Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (The Refugee Convention) outlines international policy on how refugees should generally be treated and what rights those seeking asylum are entitled to.The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Alberta Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Act outline standards and legislation on human rights internationally, within Canada and within Alberta, respectively.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child applies to youth under the age of 18 years and outlines a standard of human rights specifically applicable to children and youth including specific reference to refugee children.Immigration and Refugee Act is the major legal document in Canada which addresses all of the elements necessary to accept a person into Canada as a Refugee. Recently this Act has undergone several amendments which will have an affect on the treatment of those seeking asylum in Canada.
20 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Right not to be held in slavery or tortured or be subject to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (Article 4, 5)Right not to be subject to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile (Article 9)Right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution (Article 14)
21 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Freedom of thought, conscience and religion (Article 18)Freedom of expression and opinion (Article 19)Right to peaceful assembly (Article 20)Right to enough resources to feed, clothe and house one’s family (Article 25)Right to free education in the elementary years (Article 26)
22 Convention of the Rights of the Child Inherent right to life (Article 6)Right not to be separated from their parents (Article 9)Right not to be protected from physical or mental harm or neglect, including sexual abuse or exploitation (Article 19)Right to free and compulsory primary education (Article 28)
23 Thailand: A Karen refugee girl heads home after school in Mae Sot camp Thailand: A Karen refugee girl heads home after school in Mae Sot camp. UNHCR / D. Lom
24 Convention of the Rights of the Child Right to be separated from adults if jailed or detained; right to not be tortured or suffer cruel or degrading treatment (Article 37 (c))Right to not take part in hostilities and to receive special protection if exposed to armed conflict (Article 38)Right to freely enjoy one’s culture, religion and language (Article 30)
25 Video Shows unique experiences of refugees Young people in video were between one year and sixteen years old when they were forced to fleeFrom a variety of countries, some more industrialized and some developingSome had parents some did not.