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4-1 COBOL for the 21 st Century Nancy Stern Hofstra University Robert A. Stern Nassau Community College James P. Ley University of Wisconsin-Stout (Emeritus)

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Presentation on theme: "4-1 COBOL for the 21 st Century Nancy Stern Hofstra University Robert A. Stern Nassau Community College James P. Ley University of Wisconsin-Stout (Emeritus)"— Presentation transcript:

1 4-1 COBOL for the 21 st Century Nancy Stern Hofstra University Robert A. Stern Nassau Community College James P. Ley University of Wisconsin-Stout (Emeritus) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11th edition

2 4-2 Coding Complete COBOL Programs: The PROCEDURE DIVISION Chapter 4

3 4-3 Chapter Objectives To familiarize you with methods used to 1.Access input and output files 2.Read data from an input file 3.Perform simple move operations 4.Write information to an output file 5.Accomplish end-of-job operations 6.Execute paragraphs from main module, return control to that main module

4 4-4 Chapter Contents Review of First Three Divisions Format of PROCEDURE DIVISION Statements Coded in Main Module of Batch Programs Statements Coded in Fully Interactive Programs Statements Coded for Processing Batch Files Comparing Batch and Interactive Programs Review of Comments in COBOL Y2K Compliant Date Fields

5 4-5 Humor

6 4-6 Review of First Three Divisions IDENTIFICATION DIVISION –Identifies program name ENVIRONMENT DIVISION –Defines files and equipment used by batch programs

7 4-7 Review of First Three Divisions DATA DIVISION –FILE SECTION Detailed description of input/output records –WORKING-STORAGE SECTION Defines keyed input, displayed output Defines fields needed for processing but not part of input/output records

8 4-8 PROCEDURE DIVISION Contains instructions to Read data Process data Produce output Perform end-of-job operations

9 4-9 PROCEDURE DIVISION Interactive processing instructions –Accept input from keyboard –Display output on screen Batch processing instructions –Access files and read them –Write output to files

10 4-10 Paragraphs PROCEDURE DIVISION divided into paragraphs Each is independent module or routine Made up of series of instructions to perform specific set of operations

11 4-11 Rules for Paragraph-Names Coded in Area A, followed by period Follow rules for forming data-names except may be all digits –1010, 1020, 1030, etc. are valid paragraph names Must be unique

12 4-12 Procedure Division Statements All statements coded in Area B Statement begins with verb (READ, MOVE) Last statement in paragraph ends with period Sentence - series of statements ending with period

13 4-13 Batch Program Instructions OPEN - to open files to be processed PERFORM UNTIL … END-PERFORM –Loop to continually READ and process input records and WRITE results to output file until there are no more records CLOSE - to close files when done processing STOP RUN - to end program

14 4-14 OPEN Statement Accesses and makes files available for processing Identifies whether files will be used for input or output

15 4-15 OPEN Statement INPUT file-name-1 … OPEN OUTPUT file-name-2 … File-names used must appear in SELECT statement File must be accessed with OPEN before reading from or writing to it FORMAT

16 4-16 OPEN statement example May use a single OPEN statement Open Input Payroll-File Output PayChecks, Err-List May use multiple OPEN statements Open Input Payroll-File Open Output PayChecks Open Output Err-List

17 4-17 PERFORM UNTIL … END-PERFORM PERFORM UNTIL condition-1 statement-1... [END-PERFORM] Repeatedly executes statement(s) between PERFORM UNTIL … END- PERFORM until condition specified in UNTIL clause is met FORMAT

18 4-18 PERFORM UNTIL … END-PERFORM In typical batch program, instructions repeated until no more records in file When condition met, program continues with statement following END-PERFORM

19 4-19 PERFORM UNTIL … END-PERFORM Perform Until WS-More-Data = 'NO' Read Payroll-File At End Move 'NO' To WS-More-Data Not At End Perform 200-Process-Record End-Read End-Perform EXAMPLE

20 4-20 PERFORM UNTIL … END-PERFORM Assume WS-More-Data initially = 'YES' –Condition not met, so statements in PERFORM loop will be executed WS-More-Data set to 'NO' when MOVE statement executed –When condition checked again loop ends since condition has been met

21 4-21 READ Statement Reads record from file opened for input Transfers record to input storage area Makes one record available at a time, not entire file

22 4-22 READ Statement READ file-name-1 AT END statement-1 … [NOT AT END statement-2 …] [END-READ] File-name appears in SELECT statement, FD entry and OPEN AT END tests if there are more records FORMAT

23 4-23 READ Statement If no more records –Executes statement(s) after AT END –Typically statement(s) to cause loop containing READ to end If more records –Reads in next record –Executes statement(s) after NOT AT END –Typically statement(s) to process record just read

24 4-24 Simple PERFORM PERFORM paragraph-name To execute instructions in separate paragraph or module one time Transfers control to named paragraph Executes all instructions in paragraph Control returns to statement following PERFORM FORMAT

25 4-25 Out-Of-Line PERFORM PERFORM paragraph-name UNTIL condition Repeats paragraph until condition met Control transfers to named paragraph Executes instructions in paragraph and returns FORMAT

26 4-26 In-Line PERFORM PERFORM UNTIL condition statement(s) END-PERFORM Repeats statement(s) until condition met Statement(s) to be executed are in-line, not in separate paragraph FORMAT

27 4-27 End-Of-Job Processing Steps performed after all records processed Release all files Terminate processing

28 4-28 CLOSE statement CLOSE file-name-1... Close all files opened Indicates files no longer needed for processing Releases files and deactivates devices FORMAT

29 4-29 Closing multiple files May use a single CLOSE statement Close Payroll-File PayChecks Err-List May use multiple CLOSE statements Close Payroll-File Close PayChecks Close Err-List

30 4-30 STOP RUN Terminates the program Usually last instruction in main module Execution continues with next paragraph if STOP RUN is omitted

31 4-31 Interactive Program Statements DISPLAY to prompt for input ACCEPT to store input in WORKING- STORAGE areas Various statements to process input DISPLAY to show output DISPLAY to ask if there is more input ACCEPT to get response

32 4-32 Interactive Program Statements Statements coded in an in-line PERFORM loop Repeated until user responds that there is no more input Like batch programs, loop may include simple PERFORM to execute instructions for processing input that are in a separate paragraph

33 4-33 MOVE statement MOVE identifier-1 TO identifier-2 Copies contents of identifier-1 to identifier-2 FORMAT

34 4-34 WRITE statement WRITE record-name-1 Transmits data from output record area to associated file on device specified Record-name is 01 level name following FD for a file opened for output READ file-name, WRITE record-name FORMAT

35 4-35 Comments in COBOL Start with asterisk (*) in column 7 Use as reminders and explanations of processing performed by program Use to describe program in IDENTIFICATION DIVISION Use to describe each module in PROCEDURE DIVISION

36 4-36 Batch Programs Review Programs that process large quantity of data stored in files Require ENVIRONMENT DIVISION Require FILE SECTION in DATA DIVISION Use OPEN, READ, WRITE, CLOSE verbs to process files

37 4-37 Interactive Programs Review Programs that process individual items rather than large group of items Provide quick solution to ACCEPT data, process it and DISPLAY results

38 4-38 Chapter Summary Batch Program Structure –Main module's in-line PERFORM UNTIL repeatedly executes READ statement –READ gets and processes next record until there are no more –Files are opened before PERFORM loop and closed after loop ends

39 4-39 Chapter Summary Interactive Program Structure –Main module's in-line PERFORM UNTIL repeatedly Prompts user for input and accepts it PERFORMs other paragraphs as needed to process input Asks user if there is more input –Loop repeats until user indicates there is no more data

40 4-40 Chapter Summary Paragraph-names coded in Area A and end with period All other PROCEDURE DIVISION statements coded in Area B Statements executed in order unless –PERFORM UNTIL loop executes –PERFORM transfers control to another paragraph

41 4-41 Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

42 4-42 Coding Complete COBOL Programs: The PROCEDURE DIVISION Chapter 4

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