Presentation on theme: "Systematics. Kingdom Genus Species Family Order Class Phylum Plant Zea Z. mays Poaceae Poales Monocotyledonae Anthophyta Plant Vanilla V. planifolia Orchidaceae."— Presentation transcript:
Kingdom Genus Species Family Order Class Phylum Plant Zea Z. mays Poaceae Poales Monocotyledonae Anthophyta Plant Vanilla V. planifolia Orchidaceae Asparagales Monocotyledonae Anthophyta Animal Musca M. domestica Muscidae Diptera Insecta Arthropoda Animal Homo H. sapiens Hominidae Primates Mammalia Chordata corn vanilla orchidhouseflyhuman Biological System of Taxonomy
Biological Species Concept Not a definition proper Based the ability to sexually reproduce thus sharing a common genepool and evolution. – “Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups”.
Scientific names: Always in Latin, italicized Genus capitalized, species not Underline names only for handwritten work, not print. In publications, author is include to distinguish form older, or other names Umbellularia californica (Hook & Arn)Nutt
Fig. 26-5 Sister taxa ANCESTRAL LINEAGE Taxon A Polytomy Common ancestor of taxa A–F Branch point (node) Taxon B Taxon C Taxon D Taxon E Taxon F
Applications of phylogenies: What whale meat is being consumed in Japan? 13 samples of whale meat taken from Japanese fish markets. Used Mitochondrial DNA comparisons from meat to known published species samples Lines in red show relations to illegal whale meat.
Fig. 26-6 Fin (Mediterranean) Fin (Iceland) RESULTS Blue (North Pacific) Blue (North Atlantic) Gray Humpback (North Atlantic) Humpback (North Pacific) Minke (North Atlantic) Minke (Antarctica) Minke (Australia) Unknown #1a, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Fig. 26-16 Common ancestor of crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds Birds Lizards and snakes Crocodilians Ornithischian dinosaurs Saurischian dinosaurs
Fig. 26-17 Eggs Front limb Hind limb (a) Fossil remains of Oviraptor and eggs (b) Artist’s reconstruction of the dinosaur’s posture
Fig. 26-17a Eggs Front limb Hind limb (a) Fossil remains of Oviraptor and eggs
Fig. 26-17b (b) Artist’s reconstruction of the dinosaur’s posture
Fig. 26-19 Molecular clock in mammals based on seven proteins Divergence time (millions of years) Number of mutations 120 90 60 30 0 0 Green dots 3 primate species (slower to change)
Fig. 26-20 Year Index of base changes between HIV sequences 1960 0.20 194019201900 0 19802000 0.15 0.10 0.05 Range Computer model of HIV