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The Cycling of Matter & Energy

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Presentation on theme: "The Cycling of Matter & Energy"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cycling of Matter & Energy

2 Ecosystems Community of interacting organisms within a biome living in Balance Each organism plays a role in their ecosystem to maintain balance Note: Balance is a YouTube clip link, click to open, clip lasts 1:13 but you can start at :45 to save time

3 Organisms Individual living things Animals Plants Bacteria Fungi
All organisms live in balance in ecosystems Note: The six categories above represent the six kingdoms of living organisms TEKS 6.12 D Question: There’s no definition for food web on the slide. Let’s come up with one! Looking at the picture what do you think a food web is? – A diagram showing how food (or energy) is transferred through plants and animals Food web within an ecosystem

4 Producers Consumers Decomposers
Living organisms in ecosystems are called biotic Grouped as: Producers Consumers Decomposers Make their own food Eat other organisms for food Break down dead material

5 Producers Photosynthesis
Producers make their own food through by converting sunlight energy into carbohydrates which give energy to consumers Photosynthesis Note: YouTube link to Photosynthesis Song 1:52 Question: Ask students what foods do we eat have carbohydrates in them? – cereal, grain, rice, bread, beans, nuts, potatoes, pasta, pizza, muffins, cakes, etc.

6 There are three types of consumers:
Primary Consumers Herbivore-eats only plants (producers) Secondary Consumers-carnivore that eats primary consumers or omnivore that eats a combination of primary consumers and producers Question: What is another word for animals that eat only plants? – Herbivore What is another word for animals that eat other animals? – Carnivore Tertiary Consumers eats only secondary consumers-the topmost carnivore in an ecosystem

7 Classify these Critters
Primary Consumers Producers Squirrels Lions Rabbits Foxes Coyotes Trees Sheep Zebras Deer Green Algae Bobcats Gophers Insects Cows Owls Grass Tigers Pigs Flowers Mice Cyanobacteria* Humans* Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers Activity – have students take out a piece of paper and put these animals into their biotic categories, students may work in pairs of two if desired *Note: Humans–eat both producers and consumers so they can be placed in multiple categories depending on what their diet is; *Fun Fact: cyanobacteria are producers that are not plants! Are they all easy? Do some fit in multiple categories?

8 Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Start! Solar Energy from the Sun Primary Consumers eat Producers for nutrients and energy Secondary Consumers eat Primary Consumers for nutrients and energy Producers photosynthesize to make carbohydrates Note: Short animation on this slide begins with click Tertiary Consumers eat Secondary Consumers for nutrients and energy Decomposers recycle dead organic waste (biomass) Energy Transfer

9 Energy Cycling Note: the YouTube clip is 3:24
Question: Have students identify each picture on the slide by their classification type-Producer, Consumer, or Decomposter

10 Energy Flow within an Ecosystem
Heat Heat Heat Sun Solar Energy Chemical Energy Chemical Energy Secondary/Tertiary Consumer Primary Consumer Heat Note: Animation on this slide, begins with click and then proceeds to play automatically with timings. Producers Organic Waste Organic Waste Heat Organic Waste Decomposers

11 Decomposition/Decay Decomposers consume dead plants & animals (biomass) to recycle them back to nutrients for producers Decomposers are usually put at the bottom of a food web, but they are very important because they cycle biomass.

12 Biomass Biomass is organic matter left behind when organisms die or as a byproduct of some industries. Decomposers cycle biomass back into the food web by converting this organic matter into carbon dioxide and nutrients. Energy is released in the form of heat during this process. Biomass is also considered a renewable energy source!

13 Nutrients that decomposers recycle back into the soil:
Carbon Water Phosphorus Nitrogen These are essential to all life but are only present in finite amounts throughout the world hence the need for cycling of nutrients in ecosystems

14 Decomposers: Bacteria
-Unicellular organisms -Can break down just about any type of organic matter -Live on land, air and sea -1 gram of soil (about a paperclip’s weight) contains 40 million (40,000,000) bacterial cells!

15 Decomposers: Fungi -Are not plants -Does include molds
-Fungi release enzymes to decompose decaying material -Fungi grow on hyphae: unseen strands beneath the surface of the material they are decomposing

16 Fungi in action! & Life of Fungi Mold growth over a decaying peach
YouTube Clip “Life of Fungi” 1:43 minutes long Mold growth over a decaying peach GIF taken from Wikipedia: & Life of Fungi

17 Decomposers: Earthworms Earthworms act as scavengers
Earthworms breathe through their skin They do not have eyes but do have light & touch sensitive organs Earthworms are hermaphroditic which means they have both male and female organs

18 Composting Controlled Decomposition – in your backyard! Humus
Note: Composting Humus is not the same as the food Hummus! Humus Mature compost ready to deliver the nutrients from decomposed materials back to producers.

19 Composting requires a mixture of –
1. Browns – carbon source 3. Water leaves, branches 2. Greens – nitrogen source 4. Air grass, food scraps

20 Why Compost? Think of different reasons that the composting
cycle is important to YOU!

21 Why Compost? Turn dead organic waste (biomass), like dead leaves and table scraps, into a healthy, natural fertilizer for your gardens and lawns. The humus can replenish nutrients in the soil. Results: Higher crop yields Enrich soil Cleaner soil & air Suppress plant diseases Reduce waste without a landfill!

22 The Big Picture: Cycling of Nutrients Cycle of Matter Organic Waste
Decomposers Compost Replenish Soil Cycling of Nutrients

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