2 EcosystemsCommunity of interacting organisms within a biome living in BalanceEach organism plays a role in their ecosystem to maintain balanceNote: Balance is a YouTube clip link, click to open, clip lasts 1:13 but you can start at :45 to save time
3 Organisms Individual living things Animals Plants Bacteria Fungi All organisms live in balance in ecosystemsNote: The six categories above represent the six kingdoms of living organisms TEKS 6.12 DQuestion: There’s no definition for food web on the slide. Let’s come up with one! Looking at the picture what do you think a food web is? – A diagram showing how food (or energy) is transferred through plants and animalsFood web within an ecosystem
4 Producers Consumers Decomposers Living organisms in ecosystems are called biotic Grouped as:ProducersConsumersDecomposersMake theirown foodEat other organisms for foodBreak down dead material
5 Producers Photosynthesis Producers make their own food through by converting sunlight energy into carbohydrates which give energy to consumersPhotosynthesisNote: YouTube link to Photosynthesis Song 1:52Question: Ask students what foods do we eat have carbohydrates in them? – cereal, grain, rice, bread, beans, nuts, potatoes, pasta, pizza, muffins, cakes, etc.
6 There are three types of consumers: Primary ConsumersHerbivore-eats only plants (producers)Secondary Consumers-carnivore thateats primary consumers or omnivore that eats a combination of primary consumers and producersQuestion: What is another word for animals that eat only plants? – HerbivoreWhat is another word for animals that eat other animals? – CarnivoreTertiary Consumerseats only secondary consumers-the topmost carnivore in an ecosystem
7 Classify these Critters Primary ConsumersProducersSquirrels Lions Rabbits Foxes Coyotes Trees Sheep Zebras Deer Green AlgaeBobcatsGophersInsectsCowsOwlsGrassTigersPigsFlowersMiceCyanobacteria*Humans*Secondary ConsumersTertiary ConsumersActivity – have students take out a piece of paper and put these animals into their biotic categories, students may work in pairs of two if desired*Note: Humans–eat both producers and consumers so they can be placed in multiple categories depending on what their diet is; *Fun Fact: cyanobacteria are producers that are not plants!Are they all easy? Do some fit in multiple categories?
8 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Start!Solar Energy from the SunPrimary Consumers eat Producers for nutrients and energySecondary Consumerseat Primary Consumers for nutrients and energyProducers photosynthesize to make carbohydratesNote: Short animation on this slide begins with clickTertiary Consumerseat Secondary Consumers for nutrients and energyDecomposersrecycle dead organic waste (biomass)EnergyTransfer
9 Energy Cycling Note: the YouTube clip is 3:24 Question: Have students identify each picture on the slide by their classification type-Producer, Consumer, or Decomposter
10 Energy Flow within an Ecosystem HeatHeatHeatSunSolar EnergyChemical EnergyChemical EnergySecondary/TertiaryConsumerPrimary ConsumerHeatNote: Animation on this slide, begins with click and then proceeds to play automatically with timings.ProducersOrganic WasteOrganic WasteHeatOrganic WasteDecomposers
11 Decomposition/DecayDecomposersconsume dead plants & animals (biomass) to recycle them back to nutrients for producersDecomposers are usually put at the bottom of a food web, but they are very important because they cycle biomass.
12 BiomassBiomass is organic matter left behind when organisms die or as a byproduct of some industries.Decomposers cycle biomass back into the food web by converting this organic matter into carbon dioxide and nutrients.Energy is released in the form of heat during this process.Biomass is also considered a renewable energy source!
13 Nutrients that decomposers recycle back into the soil: CarbonWaterPhosphorusNitrogenThese are essential to all life but are only present in finite amounts throughout the world hence the need for cycling of nutrients in ecosystems
14 Decomposers: Bacteria -Unicellular organisms-Can break down just aboutany type of organic matter-Live on land, air and sea-1 gram of soil (about a paperclip’s weight) contains40 million (40,000,000)bacterial cells!
15 Decomposers: Fungi -Are not plants -Does include molds -Fungi release enzymes to decompose decaying material-Fungi grow on hyphae:unseen strandsbeneath the surface of the material they are decomposing
16 Fungi in action! & Life of Fungi Mold growth over a decaying peach YouTube Clip “Life of Fungi” 1:43 minutes longMold growth over a decaying peach GIF taken from Wikipedia:&Life of Fungi
17 Decomposers: Earthworms Earthworms act as scavengers Earthworms breathe through their skinThey do not have eyes but do have light & touch sensitive organsEarthworms are hermaphroditic which means they have both male and female organs
18 Composting Controlled Decomposition – in your backyard! Humus Note: Composting Humus is not the same as the food Hummus!HumusMature compost ready to deliver the nutrients from decomposed materials back to producers.
19 Composting requires a mixture of – 1. Browns – carbon source3. Waterleaves,branches2. Greens – nitrogen source4. Airgrass,food scraps
20 Why Compost? Think of different reasons that the composting cycle is important to YOU!
21 Why Compost?Turn dead organic waste (biomass), like dead leaves and table scraps, into a healthy, natural fertilizer for your gardens and lawns.The humus can replenish nutrients in the soil.Results:Higher crop yieldsEnrich soilCleaner soil & airSuppress plant diseasesReduce waste without a landfill!
22 The Big Picture: Cycling of Nutrients Cycle of Matter Organic Waste DecomposersCompostReplenish SoilCycling of Nutrients