Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Constructing Classical Greece: From City-States to Alex the Great.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Constructing Classical Greece: From City-States to Alex the Great."— Presentation transcript:

1 Constructing Classical Greece: From City-States to Alex the Great

2 The First Greeks Minoans pass along their culture to the Mycenaeans: 1.The value of seaborne trade 2.A writing system 3.Artistic designs 4.Religious practices Mycenaean Kings dominate Greece from 1600 B.C. to 1100 B.C. What is the importance of these two early Greek civilizations?

3 The Geography of Greece Peninsula: Land surrounded by water on 3 sides Makes sea travel necessary for trade Mountains: Cover 75% of Greece Naturally divide land into city-states Climate: Temperatures range from 48°F to 80°F Encourages an active, outdoor lifestyle

4 Rule in Greek City-States Monarchy: Rule by a king or queen Aristocracy: Rule by a small group of rich people Oligarchy: Rule by a few powerful people Tyrants: Leaders who work for the ordinary citizen – different than today! Democracy: Leader chosen by majority vote

5 Athens Develops as a Democracy - citizens participate in the decision-making for the city-state Promotes learning: reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathematics, music, public speaking and athletics Values: Intelligence, individuality, freedom and beauty

6 Sparta Governed as a military state Requires military training for boys starting at age 7 and ending at age 30 Values: Duty, strength, discipline, not the individual

7 What were the Persian Wars? A land dispute that triggered war between Greece and the Persian Empire

8 Persian Empire

9 Battle of Marathon Persians and Athenians (Greeks) meet at Marathon The Athenians use the phalanx to destroy Persian forces 200 Athenians die 6000 Persians die Athenian soldier, Pheidippides, is sent running to Athens to share the news

10 Battle of Thermopylae 7000 Greeks wait to fight the Persian army at a mountain pass called Thermopylae Greek forces retreat leaving 300 Spartan soldiers to fight the Persians…to the death As a result, Athenian soldiers prepare to fight the Persians in the next battle


12 Battle of Salamis Athenians leave their city to fight at sea Set-up their fleet (boats) in a narrow channel next to the island of Salamis Persian ships are too big to move quickly in the narrow channel Athenians destroy one-third of the Persian fleet The loss causes Persians to remain on the defensive

13 Battle of Salamis

14 Delian League An alliance (partnership) between Greek city-states to work together to defeat the Persians The alliance forces Persians out of Greece and all surrounding territories After the Persian wars, Athens gains power and becomes the leader of the Delian League

15 Pericles Rules Athens Pericles’ 3 Goals: 1.Strengthen Democracy 2.Strengthen the Empire 3.Glorify Athens through art and architecture This leads to the start of Greece’s Golden Age

16 The Parthenon

17 Soldier Field Chicago, Illinois

18 Athenians Get Greedy Strong democracy in Athens leads to nationalism (people want to fight for their home because it’s the BEST!) Athens begins to gain strength by conquering other city-states and taking control of others’ ports to prevent trade Athenians want their city-state to become a military, economic and cultural power

19 Delian League

20 Sparta Steps In The city-state of Sparta believes it is their duty to stop Athens from gaining too much power so they go to war The Peloponnesian War: The war between Athens and Sparta for control of the Greek peninsula

21 Results of the Peloponnesian War 1.Sparta WINS! 2.Causes the people of Athens to lose trust in Democracy 3.Philosophers challenge people to think about their actions 4.Famous Greek Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

22 Socrates Created the “Socratic Method” that challenged people to think about their actions “The unexamined life is not worth living”

23 Plato Student of Socrates Founded the Academy – an Athenian school that lasted for 900 years Wrote The Republic describing a perfect society in which people naturally fall into three categories: farmers and artisans, warriors and the ruling class

24 Aristotle Student of Plato Developed a method of arguing that follows the rules of logic Applied method to psychology, physics and biology Studies form the basis of today’s scientific method Tutored the young prince of Macedonia, Alexander

25 Who is Alexander and Why is He Great?

26 The Greatness Begins King Philip II of Macedonia (country just north of Greece) defeats Greece Philip wants to defeat the Persians next but dies before he gets the chance Philip’s son, Alexander, takes power and conquers Persia - in memory of his dad This frees Egypt from Persian control Establishes the city of Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile River in Egypt

27 Alexander Moves East Goal: To conquer the entire Asian continent Gets as far as India Defeats the Indians, but his troops want to go home Alexander agrees and decides to return home to unify his empire and then conquer the continent Dies a few days later: June 10, 323 B.C.

28 Alexander’s Legacy His victories brought together Eastern (Asian) and Greek cultures to form Hellenistic Culture

Download ppt "Constructing Classical Greece: From City-States to Alex the Great."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google