3 III. Why are seed plants more successful that spore producing plants?
4 A. Gametophyte generation is very tiny (only a few cells) A. Gametophyte generation is very tiny (only a few cells). In gymnosperms and angiosperms it is protected inside seeds and fruits so the young of seed plants tend to survive better. The spores of ferns and mosses must land in a wet habitat. If they do not, they will die.B. Sperm does not have to swim thru water- it is carried by wind or animals during pollination. This enables seed plants to live in dryer habitats. It also increases reproductive success.
5 Name 5 Characteristics all Plants share EukaryoticCell Wall of CelluloseAll MulticellularAutotrophs- Use PhotosynthesisReproduce Sexually and Asexually
6 Scientist believe all plants probably evolved from what common ancestor? Freshwater Multicellular Green AlgaeFlowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue
7 1. Similar life cycles (alternation of generations) What evidence suggests that all plants probbably evolved from a multicellular green algae?1. Similar life cycles (alternation of generations)2. Cellulose in cell walls3. Similar pigments; like chlorophyll4. DNA evidence
8 What group of plants has NO Vascular tissues and relies on water for reproduction because it doews not produce seeds?Bryophytes
9 What group of plants has has vascular tissue but still relies on water for reproduction because it does not produce seeds?Ferns and their relatives
10 This group of plants were the first to produce seeds allowing plants to live away from water sources.Gymnosperms
11 This group of plants is the most successful because of their ability to produce flowers and enclose their seeds within a fruit.Angiosperms
13 Figure 22–6 A Cladogram of Plant Groups Section 22-1Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) TissueGo to Section:
14 Figure 24–1 Evolution of the Gametophyte and the Sporophyte Section 24-1Gametophyte (N)Sporophyte (2N)BryophytesFernsSeed plants
15 Figure 22–19 The Structure of a Seed Basic Structures in PlantsA. Seed – embryo of a plant that is protected by a covering and surrounded by a food supply1. Can remain dormant for many years2. Environmental factors (temperature and moisture) end dormancyFigure 22–19 The Structure of a SeedSection 22-4Seed coatEmbryoStored food supplySeedWingBAGo to Section:
16 3. Many modified for easy dispersal a. Light weight - can float in water and in the airb. Textured seed coats that stick to animal furc.“Winged” seeds – can “fly” long distances away from parent plant
17 d. Angiosperm seeds are surrounded by fleshy fruits that are eaten by animals allowing seeds to be dispersede. Seeds of Gymnosperms develop inside of protective cones
18 Figure 23–7 The Structure of a Root Vascular Tissues- system of “tubes” throughout a plant; two types – xylem and phloemSection 23-21. Xylem - transports water from the roots to the rest of the plant2. Phloem - transports the products of photosynthesis (sugars) from the leaves to the rest of the plant
19 Figure 23–7 The Structure of a Root Roots – absorb water and nutrients, anchor the plant, store foodSection 23-2EpidermisRoot hairsPhloemXylemApical meristemRoot capZoneof maturationZone of elongationGround tissue (cortex)Vascular Cylinder
20 Stems – supports plant, contains vascular tissue to transport water and nutrients between the roots and leavesSection 23-1LeafStemRootDermal tissueVascular tissueGround tissue
21 Two types of growth occur in stems and roots Primary – growth from the tips of the roots and the shoots at areas called apical meristemSecondary – growth in the width of the plant. (tree rings)
22 Transpiration A B Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves. Section 23-5ABEvaporation of water molecules out of leaves.Pull of water molecules upward from the roots.
23 E. Leaves carry out photosynthesis and transpiration Epidermis - outer layer that covers the leaf. “skin”Cuticle – waxy covering over the epidermis that prevents the plant from drying outMesophyll - middle layer of cells that carry out photosynthesis and exchange of the gases CO2 and O2
24 Figure 23–18 The Internal Structure of a Leaf Section 23-4CuticleVeinsEpidermismesophyllXylemVeinPhloemmesophyllEpidermisStomataGuard cells
25 4. Stomata – openings on the bottom of the leaf that allow gases to enter and leave 5. Guard cells – cells around the stomata that open and close the stomata
26 When the guard cells are full of water, the stomata is open When the guard cells are full of water, the stomata is open. When they do not have water the stomata is closed. (This helps the plant conserve water when it is dry. Stomata are usually closed at night. (no sun = no photosynthesis)
27 Figure 23–18 The Internal Structure of a Leaf Section 23-4CuticleVeinsEpidermismesophyllXylemVeinPhloemmesophyllEpidermisStomataGuard cells
29 F. Flowers – reproductive structures present only in Angiosperms F. Flowers – reproductive structures present only in Angiosperms. Pollination – occurs mostly by animals (best adaptation!) Many angiosperms have mutual relationships with animals like insects, bats, or birds. As animals gather nectar from flowers, they also transfer pollen from flower to flower helping the plant reproduce. Many animal species are flower specific- they only gather nectar from one type of flower. After pollination and fertilization, seeds develop inside protective fruits.
30 Figure 24–5 The Structure of a Flower Section 24-1I. Carpel – femalea. Stigma – traps pollenb. Style supports stigma; forms a pollen tube for sperm to reach eggc. Ovary – becomes fruitd. Ovule- eggs that becomes seedsII. Stamen – malea. Anther- produces pollenb. Filament- supports antherc. pollen – carries spermIII. Petals – attract pollinatorsIV. Sepals – protect flower bud while it is developingFilamentAntherStigmaStyleOvaryCarpelPetalSepalOvuleStamen