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precentral gyrus postcentral gyrus

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Presentation on theme: "precentral gyrus postcentral gyrus"— Presentation transcript:

1 precentral gyrus postcentral gyrus




5 Main Contents The thoracic wall Breast Intercostal spaces Mediastinum
Concept, boundaries, division Superior mediastinum Posterior mediastinum

6 Introduction 1 formation 2 division: Thoracic wall—
Anterior region of thorax, anterolateral region of thorax and posterior region of thorax. Thoracic cavity—mediastinum, left and right lung and pleura cavity.

7 The thoracic wall superficial structures 1)skin 2)superficial fascia
3)cutaneous nerve : The supraclavicular nerve Anterior cutaneous branches of intercostal nerve Lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerve

8 superficial structures
4) superficial vessels artery: perforating branches of internal thoracic artery the branches of posterior intercostal A. Vein: → internal thoracic V. and posterior intercostal V. The V. of thoracic and abdominal wall→lateral thoracic V.

9 Deep structures Intercostal spaces Position Contents:
1) The intercostal externus 2) The intercostal internus 3) The intercostal intimus 4) The intercostal nerves:



12 Intercostal spaces 5) Veins and Arteries
6)The relationship of the intercostal nerve and vessels in the costal groove: — V. A. N..

13 Mediastinum Boundaries Anterior: the sternum and costal cartilages.
Posterior: the thoracic vertebrae Two sides: the mediastinal pleurae. Superior: the thoracic inlet. Inferior: the diaphragm

14 Mediastinum 2 Division four parts of the mediastinum

15 superior mediastinum glandular plane venous plane arterial-nervous plane visceral plane lymphatic plane anterior layer thymus or its rudiment; right and left brachiocephalic V.; superior vena cava; middle layer(arterial layer) aorta and its three branches; right and left phrenic and vagus nerves; posterior layer trachea; esophagus; Left recurrent laryngeal nerve thoracic duct.


17 superior mediastinum 1) Thymus Relationship ―two side:
―upper boundary: ―lower boundary: External feature ―two unequal lateral lobes and a pyramidal lob. 2) Superior vena cava 3) The aortic arch and its branches


19 superior mediastinum 4)The thoracic part of trachea
in front of the the thoracic part of trachea : ① the sternal manubrium; ② origins of sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles; ③ thymus; ④ left brachiocephalic V., ⑤ aortic arch; ⑥ brachiocephalic trunk; ⑦ left common carotid A. ⑧ cardiac plexus and lymph nodes.


21 The Posterior Mediastinum
Main organs: ① principal bronchi; ② thoracic part of esophagus; ③ thoracic aorta; ④ thoracic duct; ⑤ azygos and hemiazygos V.; ⑥ vagus nerves; ⑦ sympathetic trunk and lymph nodes.


23 The Posterior Mediastinum
The thoracic part of esophagus Relation • Anteriorly: • Posteiorly: • Left side: • Right side:.

24 The thoracic part of esophagus
2) Blood supply Arteries: • Superior part • Inferior part Veins: → azygos vein, hemiazygos vein,accessory hemiazygos vein → Superior vena cava

25 The thoracic part of esophagus
3) Lymphatic drainage • Superior part • Middle part • Inferior part • Part of it 4) Nerves

26 The Sympathetic Trunk • 10-20 ganglia and interganglionic fibers.
• upper 4th-5th ganglions→esophageal, cardic, pulmonary plexuses. • 5th-9th ganglions→greater splanchnic N. →celial ganglion • 10th-12th ganglions→lesser splanchnic N. →aorticorenal ganglion

27 Thoracic aorta 1)position and passage 2)branches
Parietal branches and visceral branches 3)relation anteriorly: posteriorly: right: left:

28 What are they in the posterior mediastinum?
Question ? What are they in the posterior mediastinum?

29 Summary The thoracic wall Breast Intercostal spaces Mediastinum
Superior mediastinum Posterior mediastinum

30 Thank You!

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