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Energy and Mineral Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Energy and Mineral Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy and Mineral Resources
CHAPTER 4: EARTH’S RESOURCES Energy and Mineral Resources Ch. 4.1

2 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
Renewable resource: can be replenished over fairly short time spans (months, years, decades) Examples: trees, cotton, other crops, fish, livestock, sun, wind, water Nonrenewable resource: takes millions of years to form and accumulate Examples: coal, petroleum, natural gas, minerals

3 Fossil Fuels Any hydrocarbon that can be used as an energy source.
Coal Oil Natural Gas Tar Sands Oil Shale

4 4 Stages of Coal 1. Peat Softer - plant (Releases less heat)
2. Lignite - sedimentary 3. B-Coal (Bituminous) 4. A-Coal (Anthracite) Harder - metamorphic (Releases more heat)

5 A-Coal vs. B-Coal Harder & dense More carbon Burns cleaner & longer
Met. rock Shiny Least abundant Softer & less dense Less C Burns dirtier Sed. rock Dull More abundant

6 Petroleum and Natural Gas
Petroleum (oil): organic remains buried in ocean floor sediments – liquid Natural gas: organic remains buried in ocean floor sediments – gas Oil Traps must have: 1. Permeable reservoir rock 2. Cap rock - shale

7 Other Fossil Fuels Tar Sands: Oil Shale: Sand and tar mixture
Rock that contains oil

8 Mineral Deposits Ore: useful metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit Gangue: unwanted materials in rock

9 3 Types of Deposits Igneous Processes: heavy minerals settle to the bottom of magma chambers Hydrothermal Solutions: minerals left after the late stages of magma movement Placer Deposits: heavy, durable minerals settle from moving water

10 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Mined for their physical and chemical properties 2 groups: 1. Building Materials Limestone, aggregates 2. Industrial Materials Garnet, quartz, diamond

11 Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining
Before After

12 What’s in a pencil? Wood Cedar – CA, OR “Lead” Graphite – MO or Mexico Mixed with Clays – KY or GA Eraser Soybean oil – S. America Latex – S. America Pumice – CA or NM Sulfur, Calcium, Barium Metal Band Aluminum or Brass (from Cu and Zn) – mined in 13 states Paint and laquer Various minerals and metals Glue to hold it together Every year each person in our country uses about 11 pencils

13 Alternate Energy Sources
Ch. 4.2

14 At our current rate of consumption, fossil fuels may only last 170 more years.
As population , consumption

15 Solar Energy Advantages: Disadvantages: Free No pollution
Expensive equipment Cloudy days Passive Collectors: sun heats objects, which radiate the heat Active Collectors: Collect sunlight, transfer heat by circulating air or liquids Solar Cells: convert sunlight directly into electricity

16 Nuclear Energy Advantages: Disadvantages: No emissions Inexpensive
Hazardous waste Increased building costs Potentially dangerous Nuclear fission: uranium atoms split when bombarded with neutrons, nuclei emit neutrons and heat energy = chain reaction to produce electricity

17 Wind Energy Advantages: Disadvantages: Free Produces a lot of energy
Noise pollution Large tracts of land Bird migration Wind turns turbines to produce electricity

18 Hydroelectric Power Advantages: Disadvantages: Free No waste
Sediment build-up Limited site availability Flooding Fish migrations Water behind the dam is stored energy that is released through the dam to produce electricity

19 Geothermal Energy Advantages: Disadvantages:
Little environmental impact Disadvantages: Wells only last years Not available in many locations Underground hot water is used for direct heat and to turn turbines to generate electricity

20 Tidal Power Advantages: Disadvantages: Free Clean
Must have tidal range of at least 8 m and a narrow, enclosed bay Strong in-and-out flow turns turbines to produce electricity

21 Water, Air, and Land Resources
Ch. 4.3

22 Water Pollution Point source: comes from a known and specific location (you can point to it) Examples: factory pipes, leaky landfill, leaky storage tank Nonpoint source: not from a known, specific location (cannot point to it) Examples: runoff from agriculture and cities

23 Runoff Water that flows over land instead of seeping into the ground

24 Air Pollution Pollution can change the chemical composition of the atmosphere, which maintains life. Burning fossil fuels: major source of pollution Releases pollutants to form smog Pollutants combine with water vapor  acid rain pH acid rain 5.6… Increases amount of CO₂ in the atmosphere (greenhouse gas)

25 Global Climate Change

26 Greenhouse Effect Simulation?

27 Protecting Resources Ch. 4.4

28 Conservation Conservation: the careful use of resources The U.S.
The 3 Rs The U.S. 6% of the world population Use 1/3 of the world’s resources Produce 1/3 of the world’s garbage

29 Protecting Land Resources
Compost: a natural fertilizer made of partly decomposed organic material Recycle: collect and process used items to be made into new products Conserves resources Less waste

30 Water Protection 1972 – Clean Water Act 1974 – Safe Water Drinking Act
Reduce point source pollution Increased sewage treatment plants Made more water safe to fish and swim in 1974 – Safe Water Drinking Act Set drinking water standards Reduced amount of pollutants allowed in water

31 Air Protection 1970 – Clean Air Act
Our most important air pollution law Resulted from the environmental movement Set standards for chemicals known to cause health problems Hugely increased air quality and reduced the amount of chemicals in the air.

32 Ecological Footprint

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