# Unit 8 HS260 Anatomy, Physiology & Chemistry Amy Habeck, RD, MS, LDN 1.

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Unit 8 HS260 Anatomy, Physiology & Chemistry Amy Habeck, RD, MS, LDN 1

Questions? 2

Objectives 3  Answer your questions  Review  Chapter 2, Zumdahl: Basic Chemistry- Measurement and Calculations  Chapter 3, Zumdahl: Basic Chemistry- Matter

Chapter 2 Measurements and Calculations

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Technique used to express very large or very small numbers. Expresses a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and the appropriate power of 10.

Using Scientific Notation Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Any number can be represented as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10 (either positive or negative). The power of 10 depends on the number of places the decimal point is moved and in which direction.

Using Scientific Notation Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved The number of places the decimal point is moved determines the power of 10. The direction of the move determines whether the power of 10 is positive or negative.

Using Scientific Notation Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved If the decimal point is moved to the left, the power of 10 is positive. 345 = 3.45 × 10 2 If the decimal point is moved to the right, the power of 10 is negative. 0.0671 = 6.71 × 10 –2

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Which of the following correctly expresses 7,882 in scientific notation? a) 7.882 × 10 4 b) 788.2 × 10 3 c) 7.882 × 10 3 d) 7.882 × 10 –3

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Which of the following correctly expresses 7,882 in scientific notation? a) 7.882 × 10 4 b) 788.2 × 10 3 c) 7.882 × 10 3 d) 7.882 × 10 –3

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Which of the following correctly expresses 0.0000496 in scientific notation? a) 4.96 × 10 –5 b) 4.96 × 10 –6 c) 4.96 × 10 –7 d) 496 × 10 7

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Which of the following correctly expresses 0.0000496 in scientific notation? a) 4.96 × 10 –5 b) 4.96 × 10 –6 c) 4.96 × 10 –7 d) 496 × 10 7

Volume Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Measure of the amount of 3-D space occupied by a substance.  SI unit = cubic meter (m 3 )  Commonly measure solid volume in cm 3.  1 mL = 1 cm 3  1 L = 1 dm 3

Mass Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Measure of the amount of matter present in an object.  SI unit = kilogram (kg)  1 kg = 2.2046 lbs  1 lb = 453.59 g

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Choose the statement(s) that contain improper use(s) of commonly used units (doesn’t make sense)?  A gallon of milk is equal to about 4 L of milk.  A 200-lb man has a mass of about 90 kg.  A basketball player has a height of 7 m tall.  A nickel is 6.5 cm thick.

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Choose the statement(s) that contain improper use(s) of commonly used units (doesn’t make sense)?  A gallon of milk is equal to about 4 L of milk.  A 200-lb man has a mass of about 90 kg.  A basketball player has a height of 7 m tall.  A nickel is 6.5 cm thick.

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  A digit that must be estimated is called uncertain.  A measurement always has some degree of uncertainty.  Record the certain digits and the first uncertain digit (the estimated number).

Rules for Counting Significant Figures Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  There are three classes of zeros. a.Leading zeros are zeros that precede all the nonzero digits. These do not count as significant figures.  0.048 has 2 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved b.Captive zeros are zeros between nonzero digits. These always count as significant figures.  16.07 has 4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved c.Trailing zeros are zeros at the right end of the number. They are significant only if the number contains a decimal point.  9.300 has 4 sig figs.  150 has 2 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3.Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures.  1 inch = 2.54 cm, exactly.  9 pencils (obtained by counting).

Questions? 28

Exponential Notation Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Example  300. written as 3.00 × 10 2  Contains three significant figures.  Two Advantages  Number of significant figures can be easily indicated.  Fewer zeros are needed to write a very large or very small number.

Rules for Rounding Off Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1.If the digit to be removed is less than 5, the preceding digit stays the same.  5.64 rounds to 5.6 (if final result to 2 sig figs)

Rules for Rounding Off Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1.If the digit to be removed is equal to or greater than 5, the preceding digit is increased by 1.  5.68 rounds to 5.7 (if final result to 2 sig figs)  3.861 rounds to 3.9 (if final result to 2 sig figs)

Rules for Rounding Off Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2.In a series of calculations, carry the extra digits through to the final result and then round off. This means that you should carry all of the digits that show on your calculator until you arrive at the final number (the answer) and then round off, using the procedures in Rule 1.

Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1.For multiplication or division, the number of significant figures in the result is the same as that in the measurement with the smallest number of significant figures. 1.342 × 5.5 = 7.381  7.4

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved You have water in each graduated cylinder shown. You then add both samples to a beaker (assume that all of the liquid is transferred). How would you write the number describing the total volume? What limits the precision of the total volume?

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved You have water in each graduated cylinder shown. You then add both samples to a beaker (assume that all of the liquid is transferred). How would you write the number describing the total volume? 3.1 mL What limits the precision of the total volume? 1 st graduated cylinder

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Use when converting a given result from one system of units to another. 1) To convert from one unit to another, use the equivalence statement that relates the two units. 2) Choose the appropriate conversion factor by looking at the direction of the required change (make sure the unwanted units cancel). 3) Multiply the quantity to be converted by the conversion factor to give the quantity with the desired units. 4) Check that you have the correct number of sig figs. 5) Does my answer make sense?

Example #1  To convert from one unit to another, use the equivalence statement that relates the two units. 1 ft = 12 in The two unit factors are: Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved A golfer putted a golf ball 6.8 ft across a green. How many inches does this represent?

Example #1 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Choose the appropriate conversion factor by looking at the direction of the required change (make sure the unwanted units cancel). A golfer putted a golf ball 6.8 ft across a green. How many inches does this represent?

Example #1 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Multiply the quantity to be converted by the conversion factor to give the quantity with the desired units.  Correct sig figs? Does my answer make sense? A golfer putted a golf ball 6.8 ft across a green. How many inches does this represent?

Example #2 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved An iron sample has a mass of 4.50 lb. What is the mass of this sample in grams? (1 kg = 2.2046 lbs; 1 kg = 1000 g)

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved What data would you need to estimate the money you would spend on gasoline to drive your car from New York to Los Angeles? Provide estimates of values and a sample calculation.

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved What data would you need to estimate the money you would spend on gasoline to drive your car from New York to Los Angeles? Provide estimates of values and a sample calculation. Sample Answer: Distance between New York and Los Angeles: 2500 miles Average gas mileage: 25 miles per gallon Average cost of gasoline: \$3.25 per gallon

Exercise Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved The normal body temperature for a dog is approximately 102 o F. What is this equivalent to on the Kelvin temperature scale? a)373 K b)312 K c)289 K d)202 K

Exercise Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved The normal body temperature for a dog is approximately 102 o F. What is this equivalent to on the Kelvin temperature scale? a)373 K b)312 K c)289 K d)202 K

Solution Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Since °C equals °F, they both should be the same value (designated as variable x).  Use one of the conversion equations such as:  Substitute in the value of x for both T °C and T °F. Solve for x.

Example #1 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved A certain mineral has a mass of 17.8 g and a volume of 2.35 cm3. What is the density of this mineral?

Example #2 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved What is the mass of a 49.6 mL sample of a liquid, which has a density of 0.85 g/mL?

Exercise Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved If an object has a mass of 243.8 g and occupies a volume of 0.125 L, what is the density of this object in g/cm 3 ? a)0.513 b)1.95 c)30.5 d)1950

Exercise Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved If an object has a mass of 243.8 g and occupies a volume of 0.125 L, what is the density of this object in g/cm 3 ? a)0.513 b)1.95 c)30.5 d)1950

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Copper has a density of 8.96 g/cm 3. If 75.0 g of copper is added to 50.0 mL of water in a graduated cylinder, to what volume reading will the water level in the cylinder rise? a)8.4 mL b)41.6 mL c)58.4 mL d)83.7 mL

Questions? 59

Chapter 3 Matter

Liquid Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Has a definite volume but no specific shape.  Assumes shape of container.  Examples:  Gasoline, water, alcohol, blood

Gas Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Has no fixed volume or shape.  Takes the shape and volume of its container.  Examples:  Air, helium, oxygen

Physical Properties Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  The characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its composition.  Characteristics that are directly observable.  Examples:  Odor, color, volume, state (s, l, or g), density, melting point, and boiling point

Chemical Properties Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  A substance ’ s ability to form new substances.  The characteristics that determine how the composition of matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energy.  Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter.  Examples:  Flammability, rusting of steel, and the digestion of food

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical property.  Ethyl alcohol boiling at 78°C  Hardness of a diamond  Sugar fermenting to form ethyl alcohol

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical property.  Ethyl alcohol boiling at 78°C  Hardness of a diamond  Sugar fermenting to form ethyl alcohol physical chemical

Physical Change Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Change in the form of a substance, not in its chemical composition.  Example:  Boiling or freezing water

Three States of Water Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  In all three phases, water molecules are still intact.  Motions of molecules and the distances between them change.

Chemical Change Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  A given substance becomes a new substance or substances with different properties and different composition.  Example:  Bunsen burner (methane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water)

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved How many of the following are examples of a chemical change?  Pulverizing (crushing) rock salt  Burning of wood  Dissolving of sugar in water  Melting a popsicle on a warm summer day

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved How many of the following are examples of a chemical change?  Pulverizing (crushing) rock salt  Burning of wood  Dissolving of sugar in water  Melting a popsicle on a warm summer day

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change.  Sugar fermenting to form ethyl alcohol  Iron metal melting  Iron combining with oxygen to form rust

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change.  Sugar fermenting to form ethyl alcohol  Iron metal melting  Iron combining with oxygen to form rust chemical physical chemical

Element Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical methods.  Examples:  Iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), oxygen (O 2 ), and hydrogen (H 2 )  All of the matter in the world around us contains elements.

Compound Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  A substance composed of a given combination of elements that can be broken down into those elements by chemical methods.  Examples:  Water (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), table sugar (C 12 H 22 O 11 )  A compound always contains atoms of different elements.  A compound always has the same composition (same combination of atoms).

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved How many of the following are compounds? H 2 O, N 2 O 4, NaOH, MnO 2, HF Five – All of the substances are compounds.

Pure Substances Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Always have the same composition.  Either elements or compounds.  Examples:  Pure water (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen (H 2 ), gold (Au)

Mixtures Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Have variable composition.  Examples  Wood, wine, coffee  Can be separated into pure substances: elements and/or compounds.

Homogeneous Mixture Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Same throughout.  Having visibly indistinguishable parts.  A solution.  Does not vary in composition from one region to another.

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture?  Pure water  Gasoline  Jar of jelly beans  Soil  Copper metal

Concept Check Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture?  Pure water  Gasoline  Jar of jelly beans  Soil  Copper metal

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved  Mixtures can be separated based on different physical properties of the components. EvaporationVolatility ChromatographyAdherence to a surface Filtration State of matter (solid/liquid/gas) DistillationBoiling point TechniqueDifferent Physical Property

Questions? 94

Unit 8 Activities to Help Study for Unit 10 Exam 95  Activities  Multiple Choice: All of the questions in this activity are representative of exam questions  Practice the activity as many times a you need to in order to get them all correct.  16/20 of the self-check quiz are similar questions to the exam questions for the unit  Take the self-check quiz as many times as you need to in order to help prepare for the exam.

Unit 9 Project 96  Resources  Plagiarism information  http://extmedia.kaplan.edu/global/PlagiarismGuide_s.pdf http://extmedia.kaplan.edu/global/PlagiarismGuide_s.pdf  APA formatting  http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?start=&reqstyleid=0&stylebox= 2 http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?start=&reqstyleid=0&stylebox= 2  Type in the ISBN number of a book and it will generate the citations for you

Farewell 97  Thank you for your kind attention and participation!  Email any time -ahabeck@kaplan.edu  Call if your matter is urgent  630 323 3307  Follow me on Twitter  @ProfAmyH

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