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Outlining Why outline? to organise your thoughts

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Presentation on theme: "Outlining Why outline? to organise your thoughts"— Presentation transcript:

1 BBI2421 GENERAL WRITING SKILLS Week 6 & 7 Outlining Opinion Paragraphs/Essays Coherence Unity

2 Outlining Why outline? to organise your thoughts
to ensure you don’t leave out anything important

3 Outlining Topic Sentence Concluding Sentence Supporting Sentence 1
Detail (example, etc.) Detail Supporting Sentence 2 Supporting Sentence 3 Concluding Sentence Follow this format!

4 Outlining Topic Sentence: There are three reasons why Malaysia is one of the best countries in the world. Supporting Sentence 1: Firstly, Malaysia has an excellent health care system. Detail 1: Malaysians have easy access to medical services. Detail 2: This health care system is priced reasonably. Supporting Sentence 2: Secondly, Malaysia’s education system is of parallel to International standards. Detail 1: There are many well-trained teachers and established institutions. Detail 2: Many Malaysians gain acceptance into the Ivy Leagues. Supporting Sentence 3: Finally, Malaysia has a stable and consistent economy. Detail 1: Many global investors are turning to Malaysia for investment. Detail 2: The living standards of Malaysians have positively increased over the years. Concluding Sentence: As a result, Malaysia is a desirable place to live.

5 Opinion Paragraphs When do we write an opinion paragraph? We write an opinion paragraph to say what we think about a subject.

6 Opinion Paragraphs Structure
In the first sentence, explain the topic statement (or topic) and give your opinion/s about it. In the subsequent sentences, give reasons for your opinion/s. In the concluding sentence, summarise your opinion/s.

7 Opinion Paragraphs Content
Give simple facts and examples to support your ideas. As well, give specific reasons to support opinions. Do not write about advantages and disadvantages or points for or against.

8 Opinion Paragraphs Useful Language Giving an opinion: In my opinion,…
Personally, I think… I believe that… I feel very strongly that… To my mind… I (completely) agree I disagree with… it seems to me that…

9 Opinion Paragraphs Useful Language Reason and Result: This is because…
As a result, … Therefore… My main reason is… Another reason is… Addition: What’s more, … In addition, …

10 Opinion Paragraphs Useful Language Furthermore, … Moreover, … Too
As well Also Concluding: To sum up, … To conclude, … In conclusion, … It is clear that…

11 Coherence Coherence is the unifying element in good writing. It refers to the unity created between the ideas, sentences, paragraphs and sections of a piece of writing. Coherence is what gives a piece of writing its flow. It also gives the reader a sense of what to expect and, therefore, makes the reading easier to follow as the ideas appear to be presented in a natural, almost automatic, way. When writing lacks coherence, the reader is forced to stop and reread. Occasionally, the reader may just give up out of frustration. (Taken from

12 Coherence Coherence can be achieved by using:
nouns and pronouns consistently. transition signals. logical division of ideas.

13 Using nouns and pronouns consistently
Coherence Using nouns and pronouns consistently Continue to use the same nouns and pronouns throughout a paragraph if you begin with a plural noun such as students, don’t change to singular (student) don’t switch from you to they or he for no reasons

14 Using transition signals
Coherence Using transition signals Words and phrases that connect the idea in one sentence with the idea in another sentence e.g.: first/second, furthermore, on the other hand, for example, in conclusion = traffic signals  tell you reader when to slow down, turn around, and stop makes your paragraph smoother helps your reader understand your paragraph more easily

15 Using logical division of ideas
Coherence Using logical division of ideas a pattern of organization in which you divide a topic into points discuss each point separately use logical division to organize many kinds of topics reasons/kinds/types/advantages/disadvantages/qualities

16 Using logical division of ideas
Coherence Using logical division of ideas how to? begin your paragraph with a topic sentence in the supporting sentences, discuss each point one after the other introduce each new point with a signal word or phrase support each point with a convincing detail such as an example or a statistic (numbers – cost, amounts, percentages, etc,.) end your paragraph with a concluding sentence

17 Unity To write an effective paragraph, you have to:
stick to one idea from start to finish support the topic sentence with supporting sentences that illustrate, clarify, and/or explain the main idea omit irrelevant information

18 Unity Which sentence affects the unity of the paragraph? 1 In the night sky, the stars and planets seem to be at the same distance from the Earth, but that is an illusion. 2 The stars are distant suns in their own galaxies. 3 Even the nearest star which is called Alpha Centauri is much farther away than the Sun. 4 The name Alpha Centauri is derived from the Arabic phrase Rijl Qantūris meaning “Foot of the Centaur”. 5 At such distances, the stars, no matter what sizes they are, look like point of lights. 6 Nevertheless, there is a great diversity among stars. 7 Some are much hotter than the Sun while others are considerably cooler. 8 Some stars are bright enough to be seen with the naked eye over vast distances while others are barely visible. 9 This depends on whether a star has a tenth or a hundred times more of the Sun’s contents and also on its aging process called Stellar aging. 10 This is the process of change in a star brought about by its aging. 11 It is a very slow process. 12 It takes millions and billions of years for stars to age. 13As a result, stars appear unchanging.

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