Presentation on theme: "Developing a Sociological Consciousness"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing a Sociological Consciousness Sociology 10-Introduction to Sociology
2 Discussion Outline Defining Sociology and the Sociological Perspective The Sociological Imagination and Levels of AnalysisThe Development of SociologyHistorical Underpinnings and foundersTheoretical Perspectives
5 Agency vs. StructureWhat determines an individuals behavior?Agency-making individual choices based on free-willStructure-cultural and structural influences operate in the decision making processHow society is organizedSociety is patterned
6 Developing a Sociological Consciousness Sociology: scientific study of social interactions and social organizationRigorous and systematicPowerful scientific tool
7 The Sociological Perspective The Sociological ImaginationC. Wright Mills
8 Levels of AnalysisMacro sociology - Looks at the "big picture" of society and suggests how society is affected at the institutional level.Micro sociology - Concerned with the social psychological dynamics of individuals interacting in small groups.
9 II. The Development of Sociology 18th centuryPolitical RevolutionsIndustrial RevolutionThe EnlightenmentBefore social science and the enlightenment, who had the authority to say what was right and wrong regarding social issues?
10 Auguste Comte (1798 – 1857) The “father of sociology” Argued for the empirical study of society and social statics and dynamics
11 The Big Three Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber Other voices were silenced, excluded and marginalizedWho? Why?
12 Karl Marx ( )Society fundamentally divided between two classes that clash in pursuit of their own interestsEconomic determinist**What did Marx see as the solutionto the evils of capitalism?
13 Émile Durkheim (1858 – 1916)Social integration: density of social relationships in a collection of peopleSocial SolidaritySuicide (1897/1951)
14 Max Weber (1864 – 1920)Verstehen: study of human subjectivityImportance of a “value-free sociology”
15 TheoryA theory is a set of statements that explains why a particular phenomena happensTheories can be viewed as tools or lenses through which individuals view society and, in this case, the family.Theories differ
17 FunctionalismSociety is a complex social system of interdependent parts that work together to ensure a society’s survival.Based off work of DurkheimFunctions are purposes and activities to meet different needs that contribute to a society’s stabilityManifest FunctionsLatent FunctionsCrime? Schools?
18 Conflict TheoryConflict theory examines the ways in which groups disagree, struggle over power, and compete for scarce resources.Based off of work of Karl MarxMarx predicted that conflict would result from widespread economic inequality.The “haves” dominate in social, political and economic activities over the “have-nots”
19 Conflict Theory-Karl Marx Industrialization leads to two classes: the bourgeoisie, or the owners of the means of production; and the proletariat, or the workers who earn wages.The bourgeoisie use their power to control the institutions of society to their advantage.What other institutions might those at the very top of the class structure be able to control?What did Karl Marx see as the solution to social Problems inherent in a capitalist system?
20 Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism looks at individuals’ everyday behavior and communication through symbols and shared meanings.It is a micro-level perspective.Interactionists see society as socially constructed through everyday interaction and symbols
21 Feminist TheoriesFeminist theories explain the social, economic, and political position of women in society. Focus is on gender issuesMaintain that women suffer injustice because of their sex/gender.Seeks to free women from traditionally oppressive expectations and constraints.
22 The Perspectives Functionalism Conflict Feminist Interactionism How does structure help society work?ConflictHow are resources distributed?FeministHow does life reflect gender?InteractionismHow do we construct meaning through symbols?
23 Benefits of the Sociological Perspective Gaining a broad understanding of societyPromotes and understanding of the social world and our place in it.Helps us to understand how our lives are shaped by society, but also how individuals working together can change society