3 A Century of Crisis Rome’s Economy Weakens (3rd century AD) Outlying tribes and pirates disrupt tradeFailure to continue expansion left Rome needing new source of gold and silverMinted more money with same amount of silver, led to inflation.Food shortages due to over worked and destroyed farm land
4 A Century of Crisis Military and Political Turmoil Over time the Roman government resorted to recruiting mercenaries, to defend the empireMade less than a Roman soldier, had little loyalty to the empireCitizens of Rome lost their loyaltyAt one time would give their lives for the republic, now are indifferent to the empire’s fate….
5 Emperors Attempt Reform Diocletian reforms:Becomes Emperor in 284 ADStrong ruler; limited personal freedoms and restored order to empireDoubled size of Roman army; controlled inflation with fixed prices on goodsClaimed to be a direct descendent of the Gods
6 Emperors Attempt Reform Diocletian Reforms:Split the Empire in twoRealizes the empire has become too largeSplits into the Greek and Latin speaking empiresGreek: Eastern(Greece, Anatolia, Syria,Egypt)Latin: Western (Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain)Diocletian controls the East, much wealthier than the WestDiocletian retires in 305 AD.
7 Emperors Attempt Reform Constantine Moves the Capital:Constantine gains control of the Western Empire in 312 AD324 he gains control of the Eastern Empire as well, restoring single rule to the empire330 he moves Rome’s capital to the Greek city of ByzantiumSits on the Bosporus Strait, trade and defensive purposes
9 Emperors Attempt Reform Constantine Moves the CapitalCenter of power in the empire shiftedNew capital was surrounded with high wallsTook new name Constantinople
10 The Western Empire Crumbles Germanic InvasionsGermanic tribes have lived on Rome’s northern border in relative peace since the time of Julius Caesar370 AD Germanic tribes are pushing further and further into Gaul…..why????
11 Western Empire Crumbles Germanic TribesGroup of Mongol nomads, the Huns, from central Asia came into the area and were destroying everything in their pathsGermanic tribes moved into Rome to get away from the Huns
13 Western Empire Crumbles Attila the Hun:444 AD Attlia, unites the Huns and launches an assault on RomeHe attacked both the Eastern and Western Empires, in the East he destroyed nearly 70 citiesUnable to conquer Rome itself due to famine and disease, Rome’s troubles did not end with his death in 453 AD
14 Western Empire Crumbles An Empire No More:Rome’s last emperor was Romulus Augustus (14 yrs old)476 he was defeated by the Germanic tribes.No other emperor would rule the Western EmpireHowever; the Eastern half which became known as the Byzantine Empire flourished for more than a 1,000 yrs after the fall of the west.