Presentation on theme: "David Rosenhan: Pseudo-Patient Experiment Investigated reliability of psychiatric diagnoses Eight healthy people entered psychiatric hospitals complaining."— Presentation transcript:
David Rosenhan: Pseudo-Patient Experiment Investigated reliability of psychiatric diagnoses Eight healthy people entered psychiatric hospitals complaining of hearing strange voices Once admitted to the hospital, they behaved normally and claimed that the voices had disappeared
Classifying Psychological Disorders The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders and their prevelance. The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s.
Multiaxial Classification : DSM-IV serves as guidelines for making decisions about symptoms Axis I Axis II Axis III Axis IV Axis V Is a Clinical Syndrome (childhood, anxiety, mood Psychotic, somatoform, etc.) present? Is a Personality Disorder present? (enduring, maladaptive, inflexible, impaired functioning) Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypothyroidism) present? Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (social isolation, traumatic event) also present? What is the Global Assessment of the person’s Functioning? (physical, social, occupational) 1-100
Clinical Diagnosis of Jeffrey Dahmer: Antisocial Personality Disorder Axis I: Unusual sexual symptoms may match those of a sexual disorder Axis II: Maladaptive Personality disorder Axis III: N/A Axis IV: Loner, poor self esteem, poor social skills which match psycho-social symptoms Axis V: Amazingly, Dahmer functioned well enough to hold a job & go unnoticed in his neighborhood
A mental disorder that stems from the brain that interferes with a person’s ability to think, feel, and act.
EPIDEMIOLOGY (cause and distribution) Males and females are at equal risk. Males onset between ages 16-25 Females onset between ages 20-30 May occur at any age
EPIDEMIOLOGY CONT. Biochemistry Dopamine Biology & Genetic Predispositions Stress and Drug Abuse Virus Hypothesis & Nutritional Theories (Bio-psycho-social model)
S YMPTOMS Positive -unusual thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, disorders of movement. Negative -decrease in the ability to initiate plans, speak, express emotion, or find pleasure in life. Disorganized -problems with memory, attention, sounds, and sights. Van Gogh’s (Starry Night)
D IAGNOSIS Currently, no specific laboratory tests for diagnosing schizophrenia. Blood tests and X-rays Referral to psychologist or psychiatrist If person exhibits schizophrenia symptoms for more than six months individual is considered schizophrenic. Schizophrenic Normal
S UBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Undifferentiated -reduction of interests and relationships, lack emotional depth, withdrawal. Hebephrenic -childish or bizarre behavior, hallucinations. Catatonic -unusual motor behaviors, impulsive behavior. Paranoid -delusions, illogical thinking, hallucinations.
T REATMENTS Medications - Antipsychotics are primary medications, reduces symptoms of hallucinations & delusions. (clozapine) Psychosocial Therapy - Most effective, includes rehabilitation helping to focus on skills and training for future independence. Hospitalization - patients exhibiting severe symptoms, to prevent injury & gain stability Psychosurgery - lobotomy operation. http://link.bright cove.com/service s/link/bcpid2037 12179/bctid3478 06832 There is no cure for schizophrenia