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The Global Conflict: Axis Advances

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1 The Global Conflict: Axis Advances
Chapter 18 Section 2 The Global Conflict: Axis Advances

2 Setting the Scene "Hitler will collapse the day we declare war on Germany," predicted a confident French general on the eve of World War II. He could not have been more wrong. World War II, the costliest war in history, lasted six years—from 1939 to It pitted the Axis powers, chiefly Germany, Italy, and Japan, against the Allied powers, which eventually included Britain, France, the Soviet Union, China, the United States, and 45 other nations.

3 I. Early Axis Gains On September 1,1939, Nazi forces stormed into Poland in what was known as a blitzkrieg (lightning war)

4 I. Early Axis Gains Soviet forces invaded Poland from the east and within a month, Poland ceased to exist

5 I. Early Axis Gains During the winter of , French and British troops waited behind the Maginot Line for Germany’s attack - the "phony war”

6 I. Early Axis Gains In April 1940, Hitler launched a blitzkrieg against Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium

7 I. Early Axis Gains British forces were trapped and Britain sent naval vessels to rescue the troops - the “Miracle of Dunkirk”

8 I. Early Axis Gains As German forces headed toward Paris, Italy declared war on France - France surrendered on June 22,1940

9 I. Early Axis Gains Germany occupied northern France and in the south set up a "puppet state," with its capital at Vichy French Vichy leader Philippe Petain and Nazi leader Adolf Hitler meet on October

10 I. Early Axis Gains In October 1940, Italy invaded Greece and met stiff resistance, so Germany sent reinforcements

11 I. Early Axis Gains In 1941 and 1942 German General Erwin Rommel pushed the British back across the desert toward Cairo, Egypt Rommel, the "Desert Fox"

12 II. The Battle of Britain and the Blitz
Hitler planned to invade Britain in Operation Sea Lion and began the London Blitz in August 1940

13 II. The Battle of Britain and the Blitz
Although much of London was damaged and 15,000 people were killed, Operation Sea Lion failed

14 III. Operation Barbarossa
In June 1941, Hitler began Operation Barbarossa - the conquest of the Soviet Union - and caught Stalin unprepared

15 III. Operation Barbarossa
The Nazis reached Moscow and Leningrad before Russia's "General Winter" stopped the advance Soviet troop on the offensive

16 III. Operation Barbarossa
More than a million Leningraders died during the siege and Stalin urged the Allies to open a second front

17 IV. American Involvement Grows
Although the US was neutral, FDR found ways around the Neutrality Acts to aid to Britain and the USSR President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressing the nation

18 IV. American Involvement Grows
In 1941, Congress to passed the Lend-Lease Act, and Roosevelt and Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter FDR and British PM Winston Churchill

19 V. Japan Attacks In 1940, Japan seized Indochina and the Dutch East Indies - the US banned the sale of war materials

20 V. Japan Attacks Japan’s aims were to create a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” and felt the US was interfering with their plans

21 US Battleship Arizona, sunk with the loss of 1177 crew members
V. Japan Attacks December 7, Diplomacy failed and General Tojo Hideki ordered an attack on the US fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii US Battleship Arizona, sunk with the loss of 1177 crew members

22 In the long run, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor would be as serious a mistake as Hitler's invasion of Russia. But the months after Pearl Harbor gave no such hint. Instead, European and American possessions in the Pacific fell one by one to the Japanese. They captured the Philippines and seized other American islands across the Pacific. They overran the British colonies of Hong Kong, Burma, and Malaya, pushed deeper into the Dutch East Indies, and completed the takeover of French Indochina. By the beginning of 1942, the Japanese empire stretched from Southeast Asia to the western Pacific Ocean. The Axis powers had reached the high point of their successes.

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