Presentation on theme: "Emotion is Multifaceted Emotion refers to the mix of: 1. Physiological Arousal 2. Expressive Behaviors (how you react to the physiological arousal) 3."— Presentation transcript:
Emotion is Multifaceted Emotion refers to the mix of: 1. Physiological Arousal 2. Expressive Behaviors (how you react to the physiological arousal) 3. Conscious Experience (how you cognitively interpret environment)
Theories of Emotion Does your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?
Emotion William James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion. We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress. The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling.
Support for James-Lange Subjects report feeling more sad when viewing scenes of war, sickness, and starvation if their “sad face” muscles are activated. They also find comic strips funnier if their “happy face” muscles are activated. This is called the facial feedback effect
Criticism of James-Lange Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) LOVE (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of Your secret crush
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Say James-Lange theory is full of crap. Similar physiological changes = drastically different emotional states. Physiological change & cognitive appraisal occur at same time Thalamus (routes to multiple places)
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion The Physiological Response and the Emotion are experienced at the SAME TIME Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)
Think – Two cannons firing at the same time. Physiological change (heart rate, breathing) Emotion
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Most complete theory They happen at the same time but… People who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli. Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
Schachter Two-Factory Theory Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal)
If you are in a falling vehicle heading toward the ground at 60 mph, your autonomic reaction would include heart racing and screaming. But if your cognitive appraisal says you are on a rollercoaster, then you have the emotion of “fun.”
Must Cognition Precede all Emotions? Some pathways, especially ones involving amygdala (fear), bypass cortical areas involved in thinking. Certain likes, dislikes, and fears do ignore conscious thinking.
Experiencing Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon – tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level brightness of lights volume of sound level of income – defined by our prior experience – This is why winning the lottery would only make us happy for a short while. Once the novelty of having all that money wears off, we adapt to this new level of wealth (or achievement, etc.) Relative Deprivation pony examplepony example – perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
The Concept of Happiness Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon: you will be helpful more often if you are in a good mood. Subjective Well Being: most common measurement of happiness, satisfaction, and quality of life. Looks at physical as well as economic indicators.
Facial Expressions Are Universal No matter what part of the world you are from, facial expressions indicating 6 basic emotions tend to be universal.
Context Affects Interpretation of Facial Expressions
Microexpressions – Universal Expressions – Paul Ekman
Stress Can Be Harmful or Helpful Depending on Your Stress Appraisal Stressful event (tough math test) Threat (“Yikes! This is beyond me!”) Challenge (“I’ve got to apply all I know”) Panic, freeze up Aroused, focused Appraisal Response
Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome Describes our response to a stressful event. Three stages 1.Alarm 2.Resistance 3.Exhaustion
Perceived Control’s Effect on Health and Stress Stressful events are especially harmful if they are perceived as negative and uncontrollable. Those who feel stressful events are beyond their control are also more susceptible to illness and disease.
The Rat With No Control Over the Shocks Develops Ulcers No connection to shock source To shock controlTo shock source “Executive” rat“Subordinate” ratControl rat