Presentation on theme: "Objectives Explain the changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to American life. Discuss the importance of Samuel Slater’s cotton mill. Describe."— Presentation transcript:
1 ObjectivesExplain the changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to American life.Discuss the importance of Samuel Slater’s cotton mill.Describe the growth of industry in the United States after 1812.Identify important developments in factories and the problems that factory life caused.
2 Terms and PeopleIndustrial Revolution – a time period during which machines gradually took the place of many hand toolsfactory system – brought workers and machinery together in one placecapitalist – a person who invests capital, or money, in a business to earn a profitFrancis Cabot Lowell – an American who, with other capitalists, built a factory where spinning and weaving were done in the same building
3 Terms and People (continued) mass production – the rapid manufacture of large numbers of identical objectsinterchangeable parts – identical pieces that could be assembled quickly by unskilled workers
4 How did the new technology of the Industrial Revolution change the way Americans lived? In early America, most people worked as farmers and made the goods they needed at home.With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, many people began working in factories and buying manufactured goods.
5 Prior to the Industrial Revolution, women spun thread and wove cloth at home. These processes were very time-consuming.
6 A series of innovations changed the way fabric was made. The Industrial Revolution began in the British textile industry in the 1700s.A series of innovations changed the way fabric was made.In the 1760s, the spinning jenny sped up the thread-making process.In 1764, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, a spinning machine powered by running water rather than human energy.To house the large machines, manufacturers built textile mills on the banks of rivers.
7 There were disadvantages to building factories on riverbanks: In a dry season, the machines had no power.Most factories were far from cities, and labor was hard to find in rural areas.
8 In 1790, Arkwright built the first steam-powered textile plant.
9 The steam engine was a reliable source of power. The steam-powered plant had advantages over water-powered plants.Factories could now be built in cities, where young women and children provided cheap labor.The steam engine was a reliable source of power.
10 The new mills created a new way of working, known as the factory system. Instead of spinning at home as time permitted, textile workers had to begin and end work at specific hours at the factories.Workers now had to keep up with the machines instead of working at their own pace.
11 British mill owners turned to capitalists to get the money they needed to build spinning factories and machines.17651784By 1784, British workers were producing 24 times as much thread as they had in 1765.
12 Britain forbade skilled workers to leave the country in order to keep their technology a secret. But in 1789, an apprentice in one Arkwright’s factories did just that.Samuel Slater memorized the plans of Arkwright’s machines and then sailed to New York.
13 Slater joined forces with a wealthy merchant, Moses Brown, who had rented a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.There, Slater built a spinning machine based on his memory of Arkwright’s machines.Slater’s successful mill marked the beginning of American industrialization.
14 In the U.S., industrialization began in the Northeast, where there were merchants who had the capital to build factories.But U.S. industry did not grow significantly until the War of 1812, when Americans could no longer rely on imported goods.
15 Before the 1800s, skilled craftsworkers made goods by hand, and when a part broke, they had to make a unique piece to fix the product.But American inventor Eli Whitney devised a system of interchangeable parts in the 1790s.This was one of the most important developments in American industry, called mass production.
16 Manufacturing became more efficient, and the prices of many goods dropped. People bought more goods, and U.S. industry expanded to satisfy their needs.U.S. Industry
17 The Lowell Mills Beginnings Before the War of 1812, Francis Cabot Lowell saw the latest weaving machines in England.Back in the U.S., Lowell built an improved version of the English machines.A New Kind of MillLowell opened a mill in Waltham, Massachusetts, where spinning and weaving were done in the same building.The Town of LowellAfter Lowell’s death in 1817, his partners built more factories.They also built a new town to improve the lives of their workers.
18 The new factories were staffed with “Lowell girls” from nearby farms, who received an education during their off-duty hours.
19 Unlike the Lowell girls, most factory workers had to tolerate harsh conditions. American textile mills, coal mines, and steel foundries hired children as young as 7 to work long hours in unsafe conditions.By 1880, more than a million children between the ages of 10 and 15 worked for pay.
20 Factory Conditions Environment Conditions in factories were appalling. Factories were poorly lit with little fresh air.InjuriesMany workers were injured by machines not designed to protect them.Business owners provided no payments to disabled workers.Length of WorkdaysFactory workdays lasted 12 or 14 hours.By 1844, workers were demanding shorter days, but they did not get them until many years later.
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22 Objectives Explain why American cities grew in the 1800s. List the new inventions and advances in agriculture and manufacturing.Describe the improvements in transportation during the early 1800s.Discuss the wave of immigration to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s.Describe the problems African Americans faced in the North.
23 Terms and Peopleurbanization – the growth of cities due to the movement of people from rural areas to citiestelegraph – a device that used electrical signals to send messagesSamuel F. B. Morse – the inventor of the telegraph
24 Terms and People (continued) famine – widespread starvationnativists – people who wanted to preserve the country for white, American-born Protestantsdiscrimination – the denial of equal rights or equal treatment to certain groups of people
25 How did urbanization, technology, and social change affect the North? During the Industrial Revolution, the differences between the North and South widened.Northern cities, industries, and transportation technologies grew rapidly, with both benefits and drawbacks for citizens.
26 Early American cities were small by today’s standards, but in the 1800s, U.S. cities grew larger. The Industrial Revolution spurred urbanization, as agricultural workers moved to the cities for jobs.Farm laborers who had been replaced by machines went to work in city factories and shops.
27 As cities grew, a variety of problems emerged. filthy streetsstructures made mostly of wooda lack of clean drinking waterpoorly trained fire fightersthe absence of good sewage systemsrival fire companies fought each other instead of firesdiseasefires
28 The Industrial Revolution also provided many benefits. New inventions and technological advances affected many industries and caused many changes in people’s ways of life, in the following areas.AgricultureClothing and manufactured goodsCommunicationTransportation
29 AgricultureInventions made it easier for farmers to cultivate more land and harvest their crops with fewer workers.Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper cut stalks of wheat.Threshers separated grains of wheat from their stalks.The reaper and the thresher were put together into one machine called a combine.
30 Clothing and Manufactured Goods Sewing machines made it much more efficient to produce clothing in quantity.By 1860, factories in New England and the middle Atlantic states were producing most of the nation’s manufactured goods.
31 CommunicationsSamuel F. B. Morse began working on the telegraph in 1835.Morse code used shorter (“dots”) and longer (“dashes”) bursts of electricity to represent the letters of the alphabet.Soon, thousands of telegraph wires were strung across the nation.
32 The telegraph worked by sending electrical signals over a wire. Messages could be sent quickly over long distances.
33 TransportationImprovements in transportation spurred the growth of American industry.Factories could make use of raw materials that were farther away.Factory owners could ship their goods to distant markets.
35 Side-paddle steamboats traveled well on rivers, but not on oceans. In 1850, American-built clipper ships—the fastest ships in the world at the time—were introduced.But by the 1850s, Britain was producing ocean-going steamships that were faster than and could carry more cargo than clipper ships.
36 Railroads could be built almost anywhere. Railroads tied together raw materials, manufacturers, and markets better than any other form of transportation.Railroads could be built almost anywhere.Steamboats had to follow the paths of rivers, which sometimes froze in winter.
37 Cars were drawn along the track by horses on America’s first railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio, which was begun in 1828.In 1830, Peter Cooper built the first American-made steam locomotive.By 1840, about 3,000 miles of railway track had been built in the United States.
38 United States Population Not only was America’s way of life changing, immigrants were changing who Americans were.United States PopulationThe American population grew rapidly in the 1840s because millions of immigrants, mostly from Western Europe, entered the United States.
39 Some immigrants came for land, others for opportunity, and still others because they could not survive in their home countries.As cities along the eastern coast became crowded, newly arrived immigrants headed west.
40 In 1845, a fungus destroyed the potato crop in Ireland, which led to a famine. During the Great Hunger, more than a million people starved to death, and a million more left Ireland.
41 Most of the Irish immigrants who came to the United States during this period found work: laying railroad track in the East and Midwest.as household workers.in construction.
42 Germans also came to America during this period, many to escape political persecution. Unlike the Irish, German immigrants came from many different levels of society.Many Germans settled in the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes region.
43 Some Americans, called nativists, worried about the growing foreign population. Nativists especially opposed Irish immigration because most Irish were Roman Catholic.One New York nativist group became the powerful Know-Nothing political party, but the party eventually dissolved over the issue of slavery.
44 Even more so than immigrants, African Americans in the North faced discrimination. Slavery had largely ended in the North by the early 1800s, but free African Americans did not receive the same treatment as whites.
45 Discrimination in the North SuffrageAfrican Americans were often denied the right to vote.Job MarketAfrican Americans were not allowed to work in factories or in skilled trades.Many employers preferred to hire whites.SegregationSchools, public facilities, and churches were segregated, so African Americans formed their own churches.The MediaWhite newspapers often portrayed African Americans as inferior, so African Americans started their own newspapers.
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