3 What is Science?The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.“Knowledge, especially that is gained through experience.”
4 Intro into Biology So why study Science? Why do we even care? Has Science really effected YOUR life?
5 The Steps of the Scientific Method Step 1: State the ProblemStep 2: Form a HypothesisStep 3: Perform an ExperimentStep 4: Record the DataStep 5: Analyze the DataStep 6: Draw a Conclusion
6 So what is involved??? It starts with a Purpose/Problem Identifying a problem that needs to be solved or investigatedWhat is your question?What are you trying to determine?
8 Develop a HypothesisHypothesis: is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations.Educated guess based on what is already knownA prediction of what you think will happen
9 Now to design an experiment A Controlled Experiment: is an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables should be kept unchanged or controlled.Group whose conditions remain the SAME and are NOT exposed to experimental variable.
10 Now to design an experiment Factors that can change in an experiment is called a VariableVariables used in the experiment: the control and experimental groups are designed to be identical except for one factor or variable
11 Now to design an experiment Independent Variable: The factor that is changed in an experiment“What do I change?”Variable that the experimenter MANIPULATES
12 Now to design an experiment Dependent Variable: The variable that is measured in an experiment.“What do I observe?”Variable that changes as a result of what the experimenter manipulated.Control Variable: The variable is kept constant to prevent their influence on the effect of the independent variable on the dependent.“What do I keep the same?”
13 Now to design an experiment Control Variable: The variable is kept constant to prevent their influence on the effect of the independent variable on the dependent.“What do I keep the same?”
14 ObservationsProcess of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.The information gathered is called Data
15 Thinking like a scientist How does science work?- You must THINK like a scientistObservations: process of gathering information about events or process
16 Thinking like a scientist Information gathered from observations is called DataQuantitative DataExpressed in numbers, obtained by counting or measuringQualitative DataData that is descriptive
23 How to determine the scale of each axis Determine the scale of each axis, separately. Scale is the value given to each grid of the graph along each axis. Use as much of the graph as possible on each axis.Determine the range of each axis by subtracting the lowest data value (or zero) from the highest data valueHighest Lowest Range
24 How to determine the scale of each axis Count the number of grids/lines on each axis# of gridsc) Divide the range of data values by the number of grids on each axis.Range # of Grids Interval
25 How to determine the scale of each axis Let “zero” be the origin for both axis unless the data makes it unrealistic.Maintain the same interval throughout an axis.
27 Interpreting Data After collecting data: Find meaning to the collected data and make conclusions of the dataFind if certain factors (variables) changed or remained the same
28 1. Identify the graph that matches each of the following stories: I had just left home when I realized I had forgotten my books so I went back to pick them up.Things went fine until I had a flat tire.I started out calmly, but sped up when I realized I was going to be late.
29 How many total miles did the car travel? What was the average speed of the car for the trip?Describe the motion of the car between hours 5 and 12?What direction is represented by line CD?How many miles were traveled in the first two hours of the trip?Which line represents the fastest speed?
31 Drawing conclusions…Once data are collected and analyzed, a conclusion is made as to whether the data supports the hypothesis.A hypothesis can be supported but never proven because another experiment with new data and new information may alter the conclusion.
32 Designing an Experiment Scientific MethodDesigning an ExperimentState the ProblemForm a HypothesisSet Up a Controlled ExperimentRecord ResultsAnalyze ResultsDraw a ConclusionPublish Results
33 Problem #1Dr. Smith thinks the drug, AZT, will cure AIDS. He takes 100 patients with AIDS and gives the drug AZT to 50 of them (Group A). To the other 50, he gives them a drug that looks just like AZT, but is really just sugar (Group B). In one year, 30 patients in group A are still healthy, 10 patients in group B are still healthy. In two years, 25 patients in group A are still healthy. 8 patients in group B are still healthy.
34 HypothesisWhat was the hypothesis? (What did Dr. Smith think would happen?)The drug AZT will cure AIDS.
35 Make a ChartMake a chart showing the # of people who are still healthy in group A versus the # of people who are still healthy in group B over the entire length of the experiment.
36 Data Chart # Still Healthy Group A # Still Healthy Group B At start After 1 yearAfter 2 years50503010258
37 Control Group Which group was the control group? How do you know? Group B because they did NOT receive the drug, the experimental variable. Their conditions remained the same.
38 Experimental GroupWhich group was the experimental group? How do you know?Group A, because they had their conditions manipulated by taking the drug AZT.
39 Independent VariableWhat was the independent variable? In other words, what did Dr. Smith make different between group A and group B?The drug given (AZT or no drug/placebo)
40 Dependent VariableWhat was the dependent variable? In other words, what changed at the end of the experiment as a result of the independent variable?The number of healthy people, because it depended on the type of drug given which was the independent variable.
41 The number of healthy people Checking your AnswerIf your response for questions 4 & 5 are correct, the sentence below should make sense when you fill in the blanks.____________________________ (Dependent Variable, #5 answer)depends on____________________________.(Independent Variable, #4 answer)The number of healthy peopleThe drug given
42 Conclusion What should Dr. Smith's conclusion be? The drug AZT will help to prevent AIDS.
43 What is the Scientific Theory? A theory is an explanation or model based on observation, experimentation and reasoning, especially one that has been tested and confirmed as a general principle helping to explain and predict natural phenomena
44 Theory A theory unites and explains a broad range of observations. No absolute certainty in a scientific theory.The possibility always remains that future evidence will cause a scientific theory to be revised or rejected.
45 Theories…. THEORY OF EVOLUTION BIG BANG THEORY GLOBAL WARMING Many many more……
46 Bell Ringer 1/24/12What is the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Data?How do you formulate, design and conduct scientific experiments?
48 Characteristics of Living Things What are some characteristics of living things?Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
49 Characteristics of Living Things No single characteristic is enough to describe a living thing.Some nonliving things share one or more traits with living things.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
50 Characteristics of Living Things Living things share the following characteristics:made up of units called cellsreproducebased on a universal genetic codegrow and developobtain and use materials and energyrespond to their environmentmaintain a stable internal environmentchange over timeCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
51 Characteristics of Living Things Living things are made up of cells.A cell is the smallest unit of an organism that can be considered alive.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
52 Characteristics of Living Things Living things reproduce.In sexual reproduction, cells from two different parents unite to form the first cell of the new organism.In asexual reproduction, a single parent produces offspring that are identical to itself.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
53 Characteristics of Living Things Living things grow and develop.During an organism’s development, cells differentiate, which means that the cells look different from one another and perform different functions.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
54 Characteristics of Living Things Living things are based on a universal genetic code.Organisms store the information they need to live, grow, and reproduce in a genetic code in a molecule called DNA.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
55 Characteristics of Living Things Living things obtain materials and use energy.The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials is called metabolism.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
56 Characteristics of Living Things Living things respond to their environment.A stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
57 Big Ideas in BiologyEvolutionIn biology, evolution, or the change in living things through time, explains inherited similarities as well as the diversity of life.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
58 Characteristics of Living Things Living things maintain a stable internal environment.Although conditions outside an organism may change, conditions inside an organism tend to remain constant.This process is called homeostasis.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
59 Characteristics of Living Things Taken as a group, livings things change over time. Over many generations, groups of organisms typically evolve.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
60 Big Ideas in Biology Science as a Way of Knowing Science is not just a list of “facts.”The job of science is to use observations, questions, and experiments to explain the natural world.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
61 Interdependence in Nature Big Ideas in BiologyInterdependence in NatureAll forms of life on Earth are connected together into a biosphere, which literally means “living planet.”The relationship between organsims and their enviroment depends on both the flow of energy and the cycling of matter.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
62 Big Ideas in BiologyMatter and EnergyLife’s most basic requirements are matter that serves as nutrients to build body structure and energy to fuel the processes of life.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
63 Big Ideas in BiologyCellular Basis of LifeOrganisms are composed of one or more cells, which are the smallest units that can be considered fully alive.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
64 Information and Heredity Big Ideas in BiologyInformation and HeredityLife’s processes are directed by information carried in a genetic code that is common, with minor variations, to every organism on Earth.That information, carried in DNA, is copied and passed from parents to offspring.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
65 Unity and Diversity of Life Big Ideas in BiologyUnity and Diversity of LifeAll living things are fundamentally alike at the molecular level, even though life takes an almost unbelievable variety of forms.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
66 Structure and Function Big Ideas in BiologyStructure and FunctionStructures evolve in ways that make particular functions possible, allowing organisms to adapt to a wide range of environments.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
67 Big Ideas in BiologyHomeostasisAn organism’s ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in the face of changing external conditions is vital to its survival.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
68 Science, Technology, and Society Big Ideas in BiologyScience, Technology, and SocietyScience seeks to provide useful information, but only a public that truly understands science and how it works can determine how that information should be applied.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
69 Branches of Biology There a many branches of biology. For example: Zoologists study animals.Botanists study plants.Paleontologists study ancient life.Taxonomy: Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
70 How can life be studied at different levels? Branches of BiologyHow can life be studied at different levels?Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
71 Some of the levels at which life can be studied include: molecules Branches of BiologySome of the levels at which life can be studied include:moleculescellsorganismspopulations of a single kind of organismcommunities of different organisms in an areathe biosphereCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
72 Branches of Biology Biosphere The part of Earth that contains all ecosystemsLiving things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
73 Community and its nonliving surroundings EcosystemCommunity and its nonliving surroundingsLiving things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, airCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
74 Community=Populations that live together in a defined area Living things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grassCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
75 Branches of BiologyPopulation=Group of organisms of one type that live in the same areaLiving things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Bison herdCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
76 Branches of Biology Organism Individual living thing Bison Living things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.BisonCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
77 Branches of Biology Groups of Cells Tissues, organs, and organ systems Living things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Nervous tissue Brain Nervous systemCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
78 Branches of Biology Cells Smallest functional unit of life=Cells***** Living things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Nerve cellCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
79 Branches of BiologyMolecules=Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compoundsLiving things may be studied on many different levels. The largest and most complex level is the biosphere. The smallest level is the molecules that make up living things.Water DNACopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
80 Branches of BiologyAt all these levels, smaller living systems are found within larger systems.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
81 Biology in Everyday Life More than any other area of study, biology touches your life every day.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
82 Biology in Everyday Life Biology provides information about the food you need and the methods for sustaining the world’s food supplies.Biology describes the conditions of good health and the behaviors and diseases that can harm you.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
83 Biology in Everyday Life Biology is used to diagnose and treat medical problems.Biology identifies environmental factors that might threaten you.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
84 Biology in Everyday Life Biology helps you understand what effects the quality of your life.Biology provides decision makers with useful information and analytical skills needed to predict and effect the future of the planet.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
86 An increase in size is known as growth. metabolism. development. 1-3An increase in size is known asgrowth.metabolism.development.differentiation.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
87 Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things? 1-3Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things?use of energymade of cellsstable internal environmentneed for oxygenCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
88 Which of the following are branches in the study of biology? 1-3Which of the following are branches in the study of biology?cells, tissues, organs, and organismsbotany, cell biology, ecology, and zoologypopulations, communities, and ecosystemsthe genetic code, evolution, and the biosphereCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
89 The genetic code is carried in Water. DNA. proteins. soil. 1-3The genetic code is carried inWater.DNA.proteins.soil.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
90 organisms, cells, populations, molecules, ecosystems 1-3Which of the following shows the levels of organization in correct order from the simplest to the most complex?organisms, cells, populations, molecules, ecosystemsecosystems, populations, organisms, cells, moleculesmolecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecosystemsmolecules, organisms, cells, populations, ecosystemsCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall