Presentation on theme: "Using Your Sources Evaluating, Blending, and Citing."— Presentation transcript:
Using Your Sources Evaluating, Blending, and Citing
Points to Remember about Writing a Research Paper Writing a research paper is not the same as writing a report. It focuses on one side or aspect only. Overall purpose is to prove your thesis statement through your thoughts and ideas, supported by the research you conduct. Use persuasive techniques (emotional and logical appeals and refutation)
Primary sources A primary source is an original object or document. It is first-hand information. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, and art objects.
Secondary sources A secondary source is something written about a primary source. Secondary sources include comments on, interpretations of, or discussions about the original material. (second hand info) Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or popular magazines, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research
CREDIBILITY AND RELIABILITY How do you know if a source is credible and reliable? When determining if you should use a source you need to ask yourself the following: Is the source believable and does it give information showing where research came from? Is it clear who wrote the information and can they be trusted to give clear and accurate info?
What qualifications does the organization or author possess? When was the information published? Is it current and relevant? Is the information objective and does it seem reasonable?
CREDIBILITY AND RELIABILITY Can the information be verified across multiple sources? Is consideration given to multiple points or only one? Does the author use opinionated language? Is the source electronic? Is it a.com,.gov, or.edu source?
Credibility and Reliability You have to be careful with.com sites because they are commercial sites, which are easy for anyone to attain and use. This is when it is crucial to find qualifications for publishers and authors of sites.
EVALUATING SOURCES CARS evaluation and activity
What is a Citation? When you bring research (quotations, paraphrases, facts, statistics, etc.) into your paper and give credit to the source and its author. The purpose of a citation is to do this. This is done through a parenthetical in-text citation.
Quotes and Paraphrases Direct Quote-material pulled directly from source and quoted exactly as it appears with quotation marks around Paraphrase-material pulled from source and, rephrased into your own words. It does not contain quotation marks and should be kept to similar length of the origina l.
In-text Citations REMEMBER: AUTHOR TRUMPS EVERYTHING!!! IF YOU HAVE AN AUTHOR, THEIR NAME IS MOST IMPORTANT! IF YOU DO NOT HAVE AN AUTHOR, THEN USE THE TITLE AND PAGE NUMBER. (If it is not an internet source) NOTE, THE PAGE NUMBER IS NOT THE NUMBER OF PAGES IT TOOK TO PRINT YOUR SOURCE (1 OF 1 OR 2 OF 2!)
Examples: (Author and page). (Wilson 32). (“Title” and page). (“Cell Phone Use is a Danger” 32). (“Title”).(“Social Networking is a Forum for Bullying”).
Attribution Citations must include Attribution, which is where you give credit to the author within the citation. To do this, you mention your author and any credentials or qualifications they have, along with the title of the work. This goes in the front of the in-text citation. You do this the first time that you introduce a new source into the paper.
Attribution Examples According to Elie Wiesel, author and founder of the Elie Wiesel Foundation, which is an organization seeking to combat injustice and indifference to others, “Oprah the public figure and Oprah the friend are one and the same person, helping the helpless and giving a voice to the voiceless.”
More examples According to the website, “Oprah is a Role Model for Girls,” “by opening the school for girls in South Africa, she will be helping over 150 disadvantaged girls and giving the community a sign of hope they desperately need.” When you state the author’s name this way (showing attribution), you do not need the in-text citation at the end because you have already given credit.
MORE CITATIONS: **SOURCE HAS ALREADY BEEN CITED ONCE “By opening a school for disadvantaged girls in South Africa, Oprah is helping over 150 disadvantaged girls and giving the community a sign of hope they desperately need” (Wiesel). Wiesel states, “By opening a school for disadvantaged girls in South Africa, Oprah is helping over 150 disadvantaged girls and giving the community a sign of hope they desperately need”
Paraphrasing Direct citation: “By opening a school for disadvantaged girls in South Africa, Oprah is helping over 150 disadvantaged girls and giving the community a sign of hope they desperately need” (Wiesel). Paraphrase: Oprah becomes a sign of hope when she opens a school in South Africa for 150 disadvantaged girls in the community. (Wiesel). *Note: Paraphrasing does not require quotation marks because it is your phrasing, not the phrasing directly from the source
Review How does a research paper differ from a report? It focuses on only one side or aspect of a topic. What is the purpose in writing a research paper? To prove your thesis through your thoughts and ideas supported by the research you conducted.
Review Define a primary source. First hand information original words, musical compositions, works of art, etc. Define a secondary source. Works written about the primary sources (critical analyses, reviews, reports about experiments, etc.)
Review What is the purpose of a citation? To give credit to the source you have used (in your paper a quotation) and its author
Review What is the most important thing to put in a citation? Author’s name If this isn’t available, what should be used? Title of the article When is the only time a page number is given in a citation? When using a print source.
Review In what four areas must a source be evaluated before you can consider using it in your paper? (Think CARS) Credibility Accuracy Rationality Support