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World Religions. Hinduism Polytheistic: Gods represent different forms of Brahman – Brahma: The Creator – Vishnu: The Preserver – Siva: The Destroyer.

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Presentation on theme: "World Religions. Hinduism Polytheistic: Gods represent different forms of Brahman – Brahma: The Creator – Vishnu: The Preserver – Siva: The Destroyer."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Religions

2 Hinduism Polytheistic: Gods represent different forms of Brahman – Brahma: The Creator – Vishnu: The Preserver – Siva: The Destroyer Beliefs: – People reach true enlightenment and happiness after they free themselves from their earthly desires. Enlightenment: achieved through worship, attainment of knowledge, lifetime of virtuous acts. – Reincarnation: the atman (soul) is born in another being after death. The Atman (soul) may progress up or down from plants to animals based on good or bad Karma (Actions) and Dharma (living the right way). When the Atman (soul) becomes completely pure, it can leave the cycle of rebirth and return to Brahman. Sacred Texts: – The Vedas – The Upanishads – The Bhagavad Gita Religious Leaders: Guru, Holy Man, Brahmin Priest

3 Buddhism Founder: Siddhartha Gautama – Sought to find a release from suffering – Buddha “ The Enlightened One” – SE, E Asia Enlightenment: A state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe. Nirvana: Release from selfishness and pain The Path to Enlightenment: – The Four Noble Truths Life is filled with suffering and sorrow The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of the world The way to end all suffering is to end all desire. The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path. – The Eightfold Path (Middle Way) Right Views Right Resolve Right Speech Right Conduct Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Belief in Reincarnation Religious Leaders: Monks and Nuns

4 Daoism (Taoism) Founder: Laozi Sacred Text: Dao De Jing Symbol: Yin and Yang – Unseen forces found in everything, balance each other harmoniously. Beliefs: – Dao: “the way” a universal force, guides all things – Nature is more important than social order – People should live a simple life close to nature, reflect on the Dao to keep harmony, this eventually leads to a perfect balance in life. – Daoists must help other and be good and everything they do. – Daoists must not yearn for power and wealth or being “first in the world”

5 Judaism Hebrews came to be called Jews, religion Judaism Monotheistic- Yahweh (God) Founder: Abraham – Promised to obey Yahweh – Covenant: mutual promise between God and Abraham Holy Book: Torah (First five books of the old testament) Sacred Writings: Talmud (written versions of Jewish law and interpretations) Symbols: Star of David, Menorah (7 branch candlestick) Exodus: – Jews migrate out of slavery in Egypt – Moses led the out of slavery Received the 10 Commandments from God on Mt. Sinai Beliefs: – One God – God created world and created Man in his image – The Jews are God’s chosen people – Promised Land: Cannan (God promised this land to the Jews through a covenant with Abraham) – All people are equal and should be treated with respect and love. Laws: – All meat must be Kosher (prepared in a certain way and drained of blood) – Some foods prohibited – Meat and milk should not be used together – No work on the Sabbath (Friday evening – Saturday evening) Religious Leader: Rabbi Place of Worship: Synagogue

6 Judaism

7 Christianity Monotheistic Share some beliefs, teachings, texts of Judaism Founder: Jesus Christ, over 2000 years ago. Around 33 AD is established Called Christians; currently about 2 billion worldwide. Can be found in all areas of the world. It is the largest of all religions. Holy Trinity: Father (God), Son (Jesus), Holy Ghost (God’s presence in the world) Place of worship is the church, usually on Sundays. Catholic masses run everyday and Saturday evenings. Major split in the Christian religion was the Catholics and Protestants Original language was Aramaic, Greek Teachings/Beliefs: – Jesus is the son of God, born of the Virgin Mary – Apostles/Disciples: Followers of Christ, help spread the teachings – Parables: Stories used by Jesus to teach – Important Teachings: Compassion, Mercy, Forgiveness – Love God and love your neighbor – Humans are born into sin, saved from sin through Jesus – The crucifixion of Jesus was meant as a sacrifice to atone for human sins – Resurrection: Jesus rose from he dead three days after crucifixion, showing he was divine, symbolizing new life, the dead will rise again (eternal life). Believe that Jesus will come again (the 2 nd coming) – Ordinary people were just as important and worthy as the rich and powerful – Belief in a heaven & hell; judgment. Good deeds are important but don’t guarantee a place in heaven. – Participate in Communion at various times during year, month, or every week. Holy Book: Bible – New Testament: The life and teachings of Jesus Divisions of Christianity: – Roman Catholic – Eastern Orthodox – Protestant – Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran Symbols: Cross, Fish Religious Leaders: Priests, Ministers, Monks, Nuns

8 Islam Monotheistic: Allah (God) Founder: Muhammad Islam = Religion, Muslim = follower of Islam Holy Book: Qur’an (Koran) Beliefs: – Muhammad was the last of the prophets (Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus Christ, Muhammad) – Life after death, this life prepares one for the next – Following the Five Pillars of Islam leads to salvation Affirmation of Faith in Allah Prayer five times a day Gifts to the poor Fasting during Ramadan (Holy Month) Pilgrimage to Mecca (Holy City) Religious Leaders: Imams Temple: Mosque Prayers are said facing Mecca Symbols: Crescent and Star Divisions of Islam: – Sunnis – Shi’ites

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