Presentation on theme: "Crash Course on Plants Movement of Materials, Monocots vs. Dicots, Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms, Plant Parts and Function, and Reproduction."— Presentation transcript:
1 Crash Course on PlantsMovement of Materials, Monocots vs. Dicots, Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms, Plant Parts and Function, and Reproduction
2 Movement of materialsVascular System (pgs. 614, 643 – 645) – collection of specialized tissues that bring water and mineral nutrients up from the roots and disperse sugars down from the leaves.Xylem – moves water and dissolved minerals up from the roots to the rest of the plant. Tissue is dead when water moves through it.Phloem – moves the products of photosynthesis out of the leaves to stems and roots. Tissue is living.
3 Movement of Materials (cont.) Capillary Action – tendency of water to rise in a hollow tubeTranspiration – the loss of water vapor from plantsCohesion – ability of water molecules to stick to other water molecules. Allows water to move up the xylem.Adhesion – ability of water to stick to other molecules. Allows phloem to move sugars down the plant and water to stick to the sides of xylem when moving up.Stomata – tiny holes in leaves which close to prevent water loss or open to allow air to move in and out.
4 Monocot vs. Dicot Monocot Dicot Flowering plant whose embryos have one seed leafHave parallel veins in long, narrow leavesFlower parts in multiples of 3Vascular tissues are scattered throughout stemEx. Corn, wheat, rice, grasses, irises, lillesFlowering plants whose embryos have two seed leavesHave leaves with netlike veinsFlower parts occur in multiples of 3 or 5Vascular tissues are arranged in ringsEx. Most deciduous trees (lose leaves in fall) and peanuts
5 Gymosperm vs. Angiosperm Gymnosperm (p. 621 – 622)Angiosperm (p. 621 – 622)Seeds not in fruitMost are cone-bearing and evergreenEx. Cycad, Ginko, and conifers (pines)Seeds in fruitAka. Flowering plantsEx. Peach tree, dogwood, maple tree
6 Functions of plant parts (p. 79, 688 – 670) Cell wall – a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the plant cell.Chloroplast – organelles that carry out photosynthesis.Sepals modified leaves that protect the developing flower. Usually green but can be brightly colored.Petals – modified leaves just inside the sepals which are brightly colored to attract animal pollinators.Stamen – male parts of a flowerFilament – a stalk which supports an antherAnther – produce pollen grains, the male gametophyte.
7 Functions of plant parts (p. 79, 688 – 670) Carpel – the female structure of a flower and is found in the innermost layer of the flower.Stigma – the tip, which is covered with a sticky substance that holds pollen grains when they land there.Style – a tube that leads from the stigma to the ovaryOvary – produces the female gametophyte and is found at the base of the flower.
8 Functions of plant parts (p. 79, 688 – 670) Seed – (p. 614) structure used by some land plants to store and protect the embryoEndosperm – a food supply for the developing embryoSeed coat – protects the embryoFruit – (p. 622) the mature ovary of a seed or the fluff surrounding dandelion seeds
9 Plant Reproduction (p. 671) Male and female gametophytes: pollen grains, the male gametophytes, are produced in anthers. The flower’s ovary contains many ovules, which can each contain a female gametophyte.Pollination: A bee may transfer pollen grains from one flower’s anther to another flower’s stigma. One cell of a pollen grain divides to form two sperm. The other cell forms a tube, down which the sperm travel.Double fertilization: One sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into an embryo. The other sperm unites with the polar nuclei to form the endosperm. The outer layer of the ovule becomes a protective seed coat.
10 Plant reproduction continued 4. Seeds and fruit: many seeds develop inside the ovary of each flower. while the seeds develop the ovary tissue develops into the juicy flesh of a fruit. A few seeds will find their way into the soil to grow into new plants
11 Pigments and light (p. 103)Chlorophyll – light absorbing pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant cellsLight absorption – mostly red and blue wavelengthsLight reflection – mostly green, since chlorophyll doesn’t absorb it very well
12 Photosynthesis (p. 104 – 105)Takes place in the chloroplasts found in leaves and stems of plantsLight Dependent Reactions – must have light to workTakes place: thylakoid membrane (grana) of the chloroplastNeeded: sunlight and 6 water molecules (comes from the roots and is transported up to the leaves)Made: energy (ATP- needed to power the light independent reactions; comes from sunlight) and 6 oxygen molecules (comes from the breakdown of water and is released into the atmosphere)
13 The equation for the reaction: Photosynthesis (p. 104 – 105)Light Independent ReactionsTakes place: stroma (space inside the chloroplast between the thylakoid membrane)Needed: energy (comes from light dependent reactions), 6 carbon dioxide molecules (comes from atmosphere and needed to make sugars)Made: 1 sugar molecule (glucose)The equation for the reaction:6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2