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Orchestral Landmarks.

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Presentation on theme: "Orchestral Landmarks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Orchestral Landmarks

2 Orchestral Landmarks Classical period (1750 – 1800)
Late Classical (1800 – 1830) Romantic period (1830 – 1900) 20th Century (1900 – 2000)


4 Classical Orchestra Kettle Drums French Horns Trumpets
Flutes Clarinets Oboes Bassoons Second Violins Double Basses Violas First Violins Cellos

5 Classical Orchestra Strings dominate the sound of classical music.
Melody is in the violins. Woodwind fill out the harmony (or if the play the melody they double the string parts).

6 Classical Features Balanced 2 or 4 bar phrases.
Use of sequence, repetition and imitation. Major or minor tonality – very diatonic. Very clear pulse with little variation of tempo.

7 Classical Structures Overture 1 Orchestra
Name Movements Ensemble Notes Overture 1 Orchestra Introduction to ballet or opera Suite N/A Incidental music from ballet or opera Concerto 3 Soloist + Orchestra Piano & violin concertos were most popular. Symphony 4

8 The Classical Symphony
First Movement Second Movement Third Movement Fourth Movement Brisk & purposeful Slower & song-like Fairly fast & dance-like Fast & cheerful First Movement – sonata form Second Movement – ternary or variation form. Third Movement – minuet or scherzo. Fourth Movement – rondo, variation, or sonata form.

9 The Classical Concerto
First Movement Second Movement Third Movement Exposition Development Recapitulation Classical concerto is in sonata form. Cadenza – orchestra drops out and soloist improvises to impress the audience.

10 Classical Composers Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( ) Franz Schubert ( ) Ludwig van Beethoven ( )

11 Classical or non-classical?
Recapitulation Cadenza Minimalism Wagner Melody in the strings Balanced phrasing Exposition Schubert Dissonance Tone row Concerto Programme music

12 Classical or non-classical?
Cadenza Balanced phrasing Minimalism Wagner Melody in the strings Schubert Tone row Exposition Dissonance Programme music Concerto Recapitulation

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