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Global Management 8 © 2012 Cengage Learning
explain how to find a favorable business climate discuss the impact of global business and the trade rules and agreements that govern it explain why companies choose to standardize or adapt their business procedures explain the different ways that companies can organize to do business globally explain how to find a favorable business climate discuss the importance of identifying and adapting to cultural differences explain how to successfully prepare workers for international assignments © 2012 Cengage Learning
What is Global Business?1. discuss the impact of global business and the trade rules and agreements that govern it Global business is the buying and selling of goods and services by people from different countries. © 2012 Cengage Learning
The Impact of Global BusinessMultinational corporations Direct foreign investment Multinational corporations are corporations that own businesses in two or more countries. Direct foreign investment occurs when a company builds a new business or buys an existing business in a foreign country. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Trade Barriers Tariff – direct tax on imported goodsNontariff barriers quotas voluntary export restraints government import standards subsidies customs classification Historically, governments have actively used trade barriers to make it much more expensive or difficult (or sometimes impossible) for consumers to buy or consume imported goods. Quotas are specific limits on the number or volume of imported products. For example, China has an annual limit of 20 foreign films that are allowed to be released in Chinese movie theaters. Like quotas, voluntary export restraints limit the amount of a product that can be exported annually. The difference is that the exporting country rather than the importing country imposes restraints. In theory, government import standards are established to protect the health and safety of citizens. In reality, such standards are often used to restrict or ban imported goods. Many nations also use subsidies, such as long-term, low-interest loans, cash grants, and tax deferments, to develop and protect companies in special industries. Not surprisingly, businesses complain about unfair trade practices when foreign companies receive government subsidies. The last type of nontariff barrier is customs classification. As products are imported into a country, they are examined by customs agents, who must decide into which of nearly 9,000 categories they should classify a product (see the Official Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States at for more information). Classification is important because the category assigned by customs agents can greatly affect the size of the tariff and whether the item is subject to import quotas. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Trade Agreements General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)Existed from 1947 to 1995 Agreement to regulate trade among more than 120 countries “Substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of tariffs.” © 2012 Cengage Learning
World Trade Organization© 2012 Cengage Learning
Regional Trading ZonesMaastricht Treaty of Europe NAFTA CAFTA-DR UNASUR ASEAN APEC In 1992, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom implemented the Maastricht Treaty of Europe. The purpose of this treaty was to transform their twelve different economies and twelve currencies into one common economic market, called the European Union (EU), with one common currency. NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, went into effect on January 1, 1994. CAFTA-DR, the Central America Free Trade Agreement between the United States, the Dominican Republic, and the Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, went into effect in August 2005. On May 23, 2008, twelve South American countries signed a treaty to form the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), which united the former Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela) and Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) alliances with Guyana, Suriname, and Chile. ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and APEC, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, are the two largest and most important regional trading groups in Asia. ASEAN is a trade agreement between Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, which form a market of more than 575 million people. APEC is a broader agreement that includes Australia, Canada, Chile, the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong (China), Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and all the members of ASEAN except Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Global Map of Regional Trade Agreements© 2012 Cengage Learning
Consumers, Trade Barriers, and Trade AgreementsTrade agreements increase choices, competition, and purchase power…decrease prices. Free trade agreements create new business opportunities… …but also intensify competition. © 2012 Cengage Learning
How to Go Global? explain why companies choose to standardize or adapt their business procedures 3. explain the different ways that companies can organize to do business globally © 2012 Cengage Learning
Consistency or AdaptationGlobal consistency when a multinational company has offices, manufacturing plants, and distribution facilities in different countries and runs them all using the same rules, guidelines, policies, and procedures Local adaptation when a multinational company modifies its rules, guidelines, policies, and procedures to adapt to differences in foreign customers, governments, and regulatory agencies © 2012 Cengage Learning
Forms for Global BusinessExporting Cooperative contracts Strategic alliances Wholly owned affiliates Historically, companies have generally followed the phase model of globalization, in which a company makes the transition from a domestic company to a global company in the following sequential phases: exporting, cooperative contracts, strategic alliances, and wholly owned affiliates. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Exporting Selling domestically made products to foreign marketsAdvantages makes company less dependent on domestic sales gives company more control Disadvantages goods subject to trade barriers transportation costs © 2012 Cengage Learning
Cooperative ContractsLicensing a domestic company, the licensor, receives royalty payments for allowing another company, the licensee, to produce its product, sell its service, or use its brand name in a particular foreign market. Advantages companies earn money without investing more money companies can avoid trade barriers Disadvantages licensor gives up control over product quality licensees can become competitors © 2012 Cengage Learning
Cooperative ContractsFranchise a collection of networked firms in which the manufacturer or marketer of a product or service, the franchisor, licenses the entire business to another person or organization, the franchisee. Advantages fast way to enter foreign markets gives franchisor additional cash flow Disadvantages loss of control culture bound © 2012 Cengage Learning
Strategic Alliances Advantages DisadvantagesWhen companies combine key resources, costs, risks, technology, and people. Most common form is joint ventures. Advantages companies avoid trade barriers companies only bear part of the costs partners can learn from each other Disadvantages Profits have to be shared merging of cultures © 2012 Cengage Learning
Wholly Owned AffiliatesForeign offices, facilities, and manufacturing plants that are 100 percent owned by the parent company Advantages parent company receives all of the profits and has complete control Disadvantages losses for parent company can be enormous © 2012 Cengage Learning
Companies founded with an active global strategy.Global New Ventures Companies founded with an active global strategy. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Where to Go Global? explain how to find a favorable business climatediscuss the importance of identifying and adapting to cultural differences 6. explain how to successfully prepare workers for international assignments © 2012 Cengage Learning
Growing Markets Purchasing power Growth potentialTwo factors help companies determine the growth potential of foreign markets: purchasing power and foreign competitors. Purchasing power is measured by comparing the relative cost of a standard set of goods and services in different countries. Consequently, countries with high levels of purchasing power are good choices for companies looking for attractive global markets. The second part of assessing growing global markets is to analyze the degree of global competition, which is determined by the number and quality of companies that already compete in foreign markets. © 2012 Cengage Learning
How Consumption of Coca-Cola Varies with Purchasing Power around the World© 2012 Cengage Learning
Choosing a Location Qualitative factors Quantitative factorsworkforce quality company strategy Quantitative factors kind of facility being built trade barriers exchange rates transportation and labor costs Companies do not have to establish an office or manufacturing location in each country they enter. They can license, franchise, or export to foreign markets, or they can serve a larger region from one country. Thus, the criteria for choosing an office/manufacturing location are different from the criteria for entering a foreign market. Rather than focusing on costs alone, companies should consider both qualitative and quantitative factors. Two key qualitative factors are work force quality and company strategy. Work force quality is important because it is often difficult to find workers with the specific skills, abilities, and experience that a company needs to run its business. Quantitative factors, such as the kind of facility being built, tariff and nontariff barriers, exchange rates, and transportation and labor costs, should also be considered when choosing an office/manufacturing location. © 2012 Cengage Learning
World’s Best Cities for Business© 2012 Cengage Learning
Minimizing Political RiskPolitical uncertainty Policy uncertainty When conducting global business, companies should attempt to identify two types of political risk: political uncertainty and policy uncertainty. Political uncertainty is associated with the risk of major changes in political regimes that can result from war, revolution, death of political leaders, social unrest, or other influential events. Policy uncertainty refers to the risk associated with changes in laws and government policies that directly affect the way foreign companies conduct business. This is the most common form of political risk in global business and perhaps the most frustrating. Several strategies can be used to minimize or adapt to the political risk inherent to global business. An avoidance strategy is used when the political risks associated with a foreign country or region are viewed as too great. If firms are already invested in high-risk areas, they may divest or sell their businesses. If they have not yet invested, they will likely postpone their investment until the risk shrinks. Control is an active strategy to prevent or reduce political risks. Firms using a control strategy will lobby foreign governments or international trade agencies to change laws, regulations, or trade barriers that hurt their business in that country. Another method for dealing with political risk is cooperation, which makes use of joint ventures and collaborative contracts, such as franchising and licensing. Although cooperation does not eliminate political risk of doing business in a country, it does limit the risk associated with foreign ownership of a business. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Strategies for Dealing with Political RiskAvoidance divesting or selling business to avoid risk Control active strategy to prevent or reduce political risks Cooperation using joint ventures and collaborative contracts © 2012 Cengage Learning
Overview of Political Risk in the Middle East© 2012 Cengage Learning
Becoming Aware of Cultural DifferencesFive Dimensions of Culture Power distance Individualism Masculinity/femininity Uncertainty avoidance Short-term/long-term orientation National culture is the set of shared values and beliefs that affects the perceptions, decisions, and behavior of the people from a particular country. The first step in dealing with culture is to recognize that there are meaningful differences. Professor Geert Hofstede spent 20 years studying cultural differences in 53 different countries. His research shows that there are five consistent cultural dimensions across countries: power distance, individualism, masculinity/femininty, uncertainty avoidance, and short-term versus long-term orientation. Power distance is the extent to which people in a country accept that power is distributed unequally in society and organizations. In countries where power distance is weak, such as Denmark and Sweden, employees don’t like their organization or their boss to have power over them or tell them what to do. They want to have a say in decisions that affect them. Individualism is the degree to which societies believe that individuals should be self-sufficient. In individualistic societies, employees put loyalty to themselves first and loyalty to their company and work group second. Masculinity and femininity capture the difference between highly assertive and highly nurturing cultures. Masculine cultures emphasize assertiveness, competition, material success, and achievement, whereas feminine cultures emphasize the importance of relationships, modesty, caring for the weak, and quality of life. The cultural difference of uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which people in a country are uncomfortable with unstructured, ambiguous, unpredictable situations. In countries with strong uncertainty avoidance, like Greece and Portugal, people tend to be aggressive and emotional and seek security rather than uncertainty. Short-term/long-term orientation addresses whether cultures are oriented to the present and seek immediate gratification or to the future and defer gratification. Not surprisingly, countries with short- term orientations are consumer-driven, whereas countries with long-term orientations are savings-driven. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Hofstede’s Five Cultural Dimensions© 2012 Cengage Learning
Language and Cross-Cultural TrainingDocumentary training Cultural simulations Field simulation training Documentary training focuses on identifying specific critical differences between cultures. After learning specific critical differences through documentary training, trainees can then participate in cultural simulations, in which they practice adapting to cultural differences. Finally, field simulation training, a technique made popular by the U.S. Peace Corps, places trainees in an ethnic neighborhood for 3 to 4 hours to talk to residents about cultural differences. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Spouse, Family, and Dual-Career IssuesAdaptability screening assesses how well managers and families are likely to adjust to a foreign culture Language and cross-cultural training for the family is just as, if not more, important than training for employees. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Lost in Translation Imagine you have just arrived in Japan, and you are experiencing what Charlotte is for the first time. Do you understand everything you see? If you were managing a company that had operations in foreign countries, how important do you think it would be to experience new places and learn about different cultures the way Charlotte does? How might it change the way you did business in those countries if you had actually been to them? Does Charlotte seem to be culturally sensitive or insensitive? The 2003 film Lost in Translation, based on Sofia Coppola’s Academy Award–winning screenplay, stars Scarlett Johansson as a recent college graduate and newlywed named Charlotte. She visits Tokyo with her husband, a photographer on assignment in the city, who leaves her alone to navigate her way through a country whose culture and language she doesn’t understand. When she meets Bob Harris (Bill Murray), an actor who is there to shoot a whiskey commercial and pocket a quick $2 million for it, they forge an unlikely friendship. This clip is an edited composite taken from different scenes in the movie. It shows us what Japan looks like through Charlotte’s eyes as she explores it on her own and tries to make sense of what she sees. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Holden Outerwear 1. Which stage of globalization characterizes Holden Outerwear’s international involvement? 2. Identify Holden’s primary approach to entering the international market. What are the benefits of this entry strategy? 3. What are the challenges of international management for leaders at Holden? Holden Outerwear Like so many other American brands, Holden apparel is made in China. While the company would like to manufacture in the United States, government regulations, labor costs, and high corporate tax rates are too heavy a burden. Availability of materials is another factor, as many of the pieces that Holden needs, like buttons, snaps, and fabrics, would still have to be brought in from Asia even if the garment was made in the U.S. In addition, garment making requires skilled laborers, and founder Mikey LeBlanc says that the United States lacks a manufacturing base to do the job. For any company that sources materials and labor overseas, shipping is a vital, ongoing concern. In the early years, LeBlanc used nearly a dozen shippers to transport garments from China to the U.S. To increase efficiency and reduce costs, LeBlanc found a way to coordinate shipping through a single distribution hub in China, so that just two companies now handle all of Holden’s shipping. © 2012 Cengage Learning
Chapter 8 Global Management
Creating Competitive Advantage
Unit 13 International Marketing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Explain the three basic decisions before entering a foreign market Explain.
Management Second Canadian Edition
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
3 Business in the Global Economy 3-1 International Business Basics
Global Markets and International Marketing
Chapter Questions What factors should a company review before deciding to expand? How can companies evaluate and select specific markets to enter? What.
Strategies for Competing in International Markets
Managing in a Global Environment
MANAGEMENT RICHARD L. DAFT.
Chapter Questions What factors should a company review before deciding to go abroad? How can companies evaluate and select specific foreign markets to.
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The Organizational Environment
Global Market Entry Strategies
International Business 9e
Part Two The Global Environment and Social and Ethical Responsibilities 5 Global Markets and International Marketing.
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