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5 Basic principles of the u.s. constitution

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1 5 Basic principles of the u.s. constitution
Unit 2: Basic Principles of the United States Constitution Chapter 3 5 Basic principles of the u.s. constitution

2 Topic: Basic Principles of the U.S. Constitution
Principles related to representative democracy are reflected in the articles and amendments of the U.S. Constitution and provide structure for the government of the United States. Content Statement: As the supreme law of the land, the U.S. Constitution incorporates basic principles that help define the government of the United States as a federal republic including its structure, powers and relationship with the governed. Constitutional government in the United States has changed over time as a result of amendments to the U.S. Constitution, Supreme Court decisions, legislation and informal practices.

3 The United States Constitution and Federalism
Section 1: Basic Principles

4 5 Basic Principles of the Constitution
3. Separation of Powers 2. Limited Government 1. Popular Sovereignty

5 5 Basic Principles of the Constitution
5. Federalism 4. Checks and Balances

6 5 Basic Principles Explained
1. Popular Sovereignty Government’s authority comes from the people 2. Limited Government 3. Separation of Powers/Sharing of Powers Article I: legislative branch Article II: executive branch Article III: judicial branch *All branches have separate powers

7 4. Checks and Balances Powers Checks on Powers Legislative Branch
Powers Checks on Powers Legislative Branch Makes laws Can override presidential veto of bill with 2/3 vote Approves appointments to top gov. jobs Holds the “power of the purse” President’s power to veto legislation passed by Congress Supreme Court’s power to rule that laws are unconstitutional Executive Branch Approves or vetoes laws Carries out laws appoints federal court judges, ambassadors, and other high-level officials Negotiates treaties Congress’s ability to override the president’s veto by a 2/3 vote Congress’s power to approve spending by the federal gov Senate’s power to approve presidential appointments to top gov jobs Senate’s authroity to approve all treaties Congress’s power to impeach the president Judicial Branch Interprets the meaning of laws Judicial review Congress’s power to propose an amendment to the Constitution if the Supreme Court rules that a law is unconstitutional Senate’s authority to refuse to approve the appointments to federal court Congress’s power to impeach a federal judge

8 Power divided between national gov and state and local govs.
5. Federalism Power divided between national gov and state and local govs.

9 The United States Constitution and Federalism
Section 2: Amending the Constitution

10 Constitution has been around for over 200 years
Constitution has been around for over 200 years. Framers knew they needed to include a way to change it as times change

11 Modify formally, as a legal document or legislative bill.
Amend: TO CHange Make minor changes in (a text) in order to make it fairer, more accurate, or more up-to-date. Modify formally, as a legal document or legislative bill.

12 ratify: To pass

13 4 ways to amend the Constitution
Propose an amendment Ratifying an Amendment 1. 2/3 of both houses of Congress (all 27 proposed this way) A. Legislatures in ¾ of states (26 ratified this way) 2. National Convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of state legislatures (never done) B. Special conventions in ¾ of the state (1 ratified this way—21st amendment) #1 #3 #2 #4

14 The 27 Amendments Bill of Rights 1-10: Protect individual freedoms
13th, 14th, 15th: expand voting and other rights to groups 17th: direct election of Senators 19th: women’s suffrage 16th: national income tax 18th: Prohibition

15 The United States Constitution and Federalism
Section 3: A Flexible Document

16 The Constitution is a “LIVING DOCUMENT” because it is flexible and changes with the times!
1. Gov. actions A. Court decisions B. Congressional legislation C. Executive actions 2. Political actions A. Important role in elections B. Organize daily operations of Congress 3. Custom and tradition A. Strongly influence how gov. carries out its functions

17 The United States Constitution and Federalism
Section 4: Federalism

18 Powers of the Federal Government—3 types

19 1. Expressed Powers—specifically stated in the Constitution
Legislative Branch (Article I, Section 8) Issuing money Collect national taxes Borrow money Pay gov. debts Declaring war Raising and maintaining armed forces Regulate trade among the states and foreign govs Executive Branch (Article II) Command armed forces Direct relations with gov of other countries Judicial Branch (Article III) Rule on cases involving the US gov, foreign officials in the US, and disputes among the states Decide cases concerning the Constitution, federal laws, and treaties

20 Known as “ELASTIC CLAUSE”
2. Implied Powers Article I, Section 8—“Congress has the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper to exercise its other powers” Known as “ELASTIC CLAUSE”

21 3. Inherent Powers Inherent powers—naturally belong to the gov.
In the United States, the President derives these powers from the loosely-worded statements in the Constitution that "the executive Power shall be vested in a President" and the president should "take care that the laws be faithfully executed" Most relate to foreign affairs

22 Powers of Federal and State Government
Federal Government Powers 1. Regulate interstate and foreign trade 2. Coin and print money 3. Post offices 4. Raise and support armed forces 5. Declare war and make peace 6. Govern US territories and admit new states 7. Pass laws regulating immigration 8. Make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out its powers Shared (Concurrent Powers) 1. Collect taxes 2. Borrow money 3. Establish courts 4. Charter banks 5. Make and enforce laws 6. Provide for the health and welfare of the people State (Reserved) Powers 1. Regulate trade within the state 2. Establish local governments 3. Conduct elections 4. Determine qualifications of voters 5. Establish and support public schools 6. Pass laws regulating businesses within state borders 7. Make civil and criminal laws 8. Pass license requirements for professionals

23 Limits on Federal and State Powers
Powers Denied to the Federal Government Tax imports Pass laws favoring one state over another Spend money unless authorized by federal law Powers Denied to the States Issue its own money Make a treaty with a foreign gov Go to war Powers Denied to Both Levels Deny people certain rights, such as trial by jury Grant titles of nobility

24 Responsibilities Federal State Make sure states have rep gov
Protect states from violent actions Respect states’ territories State Set district boundaries for Congress Set up rules for electing members of Congress Maintain National Guard

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