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Level 1: The Parts of Speech

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1 Level 1: The Parts of Speech
1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. Adjective 4. Verb 5. Adverb 6. Conjunction 7. Preposition 8. Interjection

2 Nouns are the names of a person, place, thing, or idea.
Proper nouns: formal names - they are capitalized (Bob) Common nouns: other nouns - not capitalized (mutt) Concrete nouns: names of objects in the world (rock) Abstract nouns: names of ideas (freedom)

3 Nouns Noun of direct address: name of someone addressed in a sentence (Bob, I’m here.) Collective noun: names a group (flock) singular nouns: describe individual examples (boat, flock) plural nouns: describe multiple examples (boats, flocks)

4 Pronoun A pronoun is a word that we use instead
of repeating an antecedent noun. Pronouns help avoid unnecessary repetition. For example, rather than say Bob went to New York where Bob went to the opera. we substitute the second Bob with a pronoun: Bob went to New York where he went to the opera.

5 Pronoun Effect: By avoiding repetition of lengthy or compound nouns, pronouns lend grace, elegance, and high speed to sentences. Gender: Pronouns can be masculine gender (he, his, him), feminine gender (she, hers, hers), or neuter gender (it).

6 Pronoun

7 Pronoun Pronoun non-specificity:
Pronouns are designed not to be specific. He can refer to anyone in the world of the male gender. So, non-specificity causes problems. Therefore pronoun usage is an art, and as the writer you must keep pronoun reference in mind at all times.

8 Pronoun The subject pronouns are: I, you, he, she, and, it.
Subject Pronouns (nominative case): The subject pronouns are: I, you, he, she, and, it. They are used as subjects of clauses and as subject complements. Example: It was I. She and I went to the beanery with him and her.

9 Pronoun

10 Pronoun Possessive Pronouns: a possessive pronoun is a pronoun which shows possession and which is used as both a pronoun and as an adjective in order to indicate ownership or possession. Possessive pronouns: my, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs Examples: Mortimer lost his pesos. The dog found its doghouse. its or it’s? The word its is a possessive pronoun. The word it’s is a conjunction of it is.

11 Pronoun Interrogative pronouns: a pronoun used to interrogate - it asks a question. who, whose, whom, which, what. Demonstrative pronouns: a pronoun used to demonstrate - it points to something. this, that, these, those

12 Pronoun Effect: Demonstrative pronouns as subjects: Generally, you should not use demonstrative pronouns as subjects very often because they have a tendency to get vague or ambiguous. Example: “This theory of gravitation influenced people” is better than “This influenced people.”

13 Pronoun Relative Pronouns: a pronoun which relates an adjective clause to a main clause. Relative pronouns often begin short adjective clauses which interrupt main clauses. Example: The man who followed you turned left. Reflexive Pronoun: a reflexive pronoun is a -self or -selves pronoun that reflects back to a word used previously in the sentence. Example: I found myself awash on a strange beach.

14 Pronoun Intensive Pronoun: an intensive pronoun is a -self or -selves pronoun which is used to intensify the emphasis on a noun or another pronoun. Example: I myself agree with that idea.

15 Pronoun Problems Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement in Number: A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. If the noun is singular, the pronoun must be singular. Remember: -one and -body pronouns are singular, even though they may not seem to be. Singular pronouns: someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, each, every Example: Someone lost his pliers. (Not theirs.)

16 Pronoun Problems his, or her, or his or her?
Traditional: the assumed male solution. Example: Someone dropped his muffler. One solution: the compound gender solution. Example: Someone dropped his or her muffler. Or: the “article escape.” Example: Someone dropped a muffler.

17 Pronoun Problems Pronoun reference problems:
Here, the antecedent of the pronoun is unclear. Example: Herbert and Ed went to the beach, where he broke his foot. (Who broke whose foot?)

18 Pronoun Problems Common pronoun reference errors:
Missing antecedent: there is no previous noun to which the pronoun could possibly refer. Example: beginning of the first paragraph of a term paper with “He was born in 1895.” He who?

19 Pronoun Problems Ambiguous reference: in this case there are two or more possible nouns to which the pronoun might refer. Example: “Dickens hastened to meet his editor, but he was late.” (Who was late - Dickens or his editor?) Vague reference: The reader cannot figure out whether the pronoun’s reference is present or not. Example: “Ralph leaned against the tree; it got cold.”

20 Pronoun Problems Ghost demonstration error: a demonstrative pronoun is used as a subject of a clause, assuming incorrectly that the reader is sure of what this refers to. Example: “This soon resulted in...” This what?

21 Adjective Example: the red car
An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Example: the red car An adjective can be used as a subject complement: Example: The swim was good. Effect: Why not simply use only nouns? Adjectives qualify nouns and allow us to express subtle differences between very similar things.

22 Three degrees of adjectives:
Positive: good Comparative: better Superlative: best Effect: Adjectives modify (change) nouns. Consider the difference between: a racing car a junk car

23 Adjective Parallel Construction in lists and compounds.
Parallel construction means using uniform parts of speech for items in lists and compounds. Keeping lists and compounds grammatically parallel is a good writing technique. Parallel Compound: John was adjective and adjective. John was tall and handsome. rather than: John was tall and an athlete.

24 Adjective Parallel List: I want noun, noun, and noun.
I want shelter, clothes, and food. rather than I want shelter, clothes, and to eat.

25 Articles are a kind of adjective.
Definite article: the Indefinite articles: a, an

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