Presentation on theme: "Trends in Employment How many hours weekly do we work for pay?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Trends in Employment How many hours weekly do we work for pay? Men = 48 (increases with # of kids)Women = 39 (decreases if married)Are we working for pay more hours per week now compared to 50 years ago?Men are notWomen are
2 Trends in Women’s Employment Women who workMothers with children under 6 who workMothers with children age 7-18 who work37% %19% %39% %
3 Work and Family – Combining Roles Role is a set of expected behaviors according to your social status.Role Strain occurs when fulfilling your role conflicts with fulfilling another role. (For example worker and parent.) Often involves putting precedence one role over another.
4 Role Strain - FathersGood provider role-men traditionally expected to be primary breadwinnerIf men assume main role in family is providerCan feel inadequate if can’t provideCan feel he’s done his part if he’s a good provider, therefore does not assume other roles
5 Role Strain - FathersMajority of bosses do not believe parental leave, part time work or flexible hours are appropriate for men
6 Role Strain – Fathers With Working Wives Fathers in dual income households worked an average of 2 hours less per week than fathers in single income householdsEarned 20% less in salary
7 Role Strain - Mothers Should women have jobs? Should mothers have jobs?What is a mother’s role anyway?Can you fulfill the role of mother and employee well?
8 Role Strain – Mothers at Home Homemaker role - Traditionally women were responsible for child rearing and household workWomen who assume role feel undervalued60 % stay at home moms say main source of stress is feeling unappreciated by society
9 Role Strain – Mothers Working Full Time Survey of lawyers 15 years after graduation found women with children earned 40% less than men (Wood, Corcoran & Courant) .Was pay gap due to taking long maternity leave?NO: Avg unpaid maternity leave was 3 monthsWas pay gap due to working part time?NO: 75% moms worked full time after maternity leave, only a quarter of the moms had temporarily worked part time (avg 10 months)What is the reason?
10 Women’s Experience in Workplace Women without children earn 90% salary of men in same job with same education levelWomen with children earn 70% of salary of men in same job with same education level
11 Role Strain – Mothers Working Part Time Fewer hours and lower wages but you get to keep your jobSacrifice seniority and benefits and perksHalf of women who do this say workload is the same, 10% say workload increasedMistrust and resentment of employers and fellow employees
12 The Mommy TaxAverage working mother of two forfeits half of her potential lifetime earnings (Joshi, ’91)Reduced earnings including retirement is greater than $1 million for college educated mothers (O’Neill, ’94)
13 Mother’s Workforce Participation US is among the lowest in developed countries for college educated mothersAre they really choosing to not to work?Would they keep working if they employers had opportunities for reduced or more flexible hours?
14 Women’s Birthplace Participation About 20% of women forgo motherhood thesedays compared to less than 10% in the 1950’sAre they really choosing not to have children?Survey of middle aged childless women when they were in their 20’s found that half of them said they wanted and intended to have children
15 The Second ShiftWorking wives spend twice as much time on housework as working husbandsMen’s time on housework remains stable whether married, single or a parent (22 hrs/wk)Women’s time on housework increasesBy 10 hours per week when she marries or has a child (32 hrs/wk to 42 hrs/wk)
16 Why is there a Second Shift? Resource theory– Women have less power often making less money, must compensateIdeological perspective – following traditional gender roles of “women’s work”Rational investment perspective – divide labor according to efficiency
17 Men’s Perceptions in Dual-Career Families Most men say wives’ employment is of secondary importance in familyHowever, most men say they support their spouse’s workingActual measures of support from husbands (housework, emotional concern, etc) are significantly lower than wives
18 Brett & Yogev (1988) Restructuring Study Restructuring is measured by:Times of arrival/departure for work dictated by family?Rearrange work to be at home at certain times?Limit late nights, weekend work & travel?Make special arrangements to attend to child or spouse’s needs?
19 Who is Restructuring & Why? WOMEN restructured whenHad young childrenHusband had job requiring long hoursMEN restructured whenWives had high status jobWives were feeling low in self-efficacy
20 Effect of Restructuring on Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy- feelings of confidence & effectivenessDo you feel confident in solving problems?Are things going your way?Can you cope effectively with change?Are you on top of things?
21 Effect of Restructuring on Self-Efficacy WOMEN- Self-efficacy unaffected by restructuring.MEN- Restructuring associated with low self-efficacy.
22 Men’s Marital Satisfaction in Dual-Career Families Men’s marital satisfaction suffers whenWife has more educationWife has higher job statusWife earns higher incomeWife has job in male-dominated field
23 Marital Satisfaction in Dual Career Families HIGH when men work full time, women work part timeLOWEST when at least one partner works odd hours, overtime hours, or a second jobHIGH when couples genuinely agree on division of labor (If both full time, highest when men share housework equally)
24 Children with Working Mothers For preschool children, most studies find no differences in psychological adjustment and school achievement as long as children are in high quality day careAdolescent girls exhibit better social adjustment, extraversion & independence