Presentation on theme: "George III Statue torn down in NYC on July 9, 1776."— Presentation transcript:
George III Statue torn down in NYC on July 9, 1776
Enlightenment: John Locke Social Contract Theory: governments are formed with the consent of citizens. The most important rights are: Life, Liberty, and Property. The state exists only to protect these rights. If a government fails in this task, citizens should rebel against it and create a government that will protect them.
Thomas Paine: Common Sense Places blame for the suffering of the colonies directly on King George III Proposed an immediate declaration of independence, or self rule. Sold over 100,000 copies in just months
Review Questions… Who said that government only exists because people give their consent to be governed? According to Locke, what should people do if the government will not protect their property? Who wrote Common Sense? What did Common Sense propose? Who did Thomas Paine directly blame for all colonial problems?
The Declaration of Independence Richard Henry Lee of Virginia - Resolution to the Second Continental Congress Written by Thomas Jefferson, taken from the ideas of Franklin, Locke, Lee and others. Natural Rights: “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Common Sense appeared at the same time as the meeting of the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia. This Congress met less than a month after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, and it continued to meet throughout the Revolution. The Congress sent an Olive Branch Petition to King George III of England. This petition, written by moderates, expressed the colonists’ loyalty to the king and requested a halt in fighting until a solution could be found. The king refused the petition. In June 1776, after more than a year of war, the Congress decided it was time for the colonies to cut ties with Britain. They prepared a statement of the reasons for separation—a Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson drafted the statement.
The Declaration of Independence Jefferson plans the Declaration in several parts; each part having a specific theme and purpose: Influenced by Enlightenment
Declaration of Independence Part 1: Preamble: Introduction This part was just written to say why the document was being created. Jefferson writes that the declaration was necessary because the colonists wanted to “dissolve the political bands,” or separate from England.
Declaration of Independence Part 2: Colonist’s Ideas on Government. In the declaration of rights, Jefferson drew heavily on the writings of John Locke. Locke believed that people have natural rights— rights that belong to them simply because they are human. Jefferson called these unalienable rights, meaning rights that could not be taken away. “We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed (provided) by their creator with certain unalienable (basic, cant be taken) Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.”
Declaration of Independence Part 3: complaints In the complaints against the king, Jefferson wrote that public officials must make decisions based on the law, not on their own personal wishes. He called this a rule of law.
Declaration of Independence Part 4: resolution in declaring the colonies free and independent states, concluded the Declaration.
Jefferson’s document not only declared the nation’s independence, it also defined the basic principles on which American government and society would rest. Congressional delegates voted to approve the Declaration on July 4, 1776.
John Adams wife, Abigail, expressed her opinions about independence in a letter. “Remember the Ladies” in the new code of law. Don’t put unlimited power in the hands of husbands. Her complaints about the status of women in the society employed the same ideas that men were using in their fight against Great Britain. Abigail also raised the issue of slavery. John felt that the question of slavery would divide the delegates when unity was most crucial for success. * John Adams believed that it was more important to win the war than to engage in a debate about liberty for all. Remember the Ladies
Review Questions: Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed a resolution declaring that the colonists do what? Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? The ideas of what thinkers can be seen in the Declaration of Independence? What was included in the Preamble? What was an example of a grievance that the declaration accused upon the King?