Presentation on theme: "IB Internal Assessment Design. Designing an Experiment Formulate a research question. Read the background theory. Decide on the equipment you will need."— Presentation transcript:
Designing an Experiment Formulate a research question. Read the background theory. Decide on the equipment you will need. Design a method. Decide what safety and environmental considerations there are.
Research Question This is the purpose of your experiment. Concisely state what you are trying to find out. It is good practice to write a hypothesis too.
Background Theory A literacy search is usually carried out to find out what work has been done that is similar to your research question. This may give methods that have been used previously and will provide the ”science” behind the experiment (this backs up your hypothesis). Remember to add full references in footnotes.
Equipment List List the equipment you intend to use, include the size (e.g. 25ml measuring cylinder). It is good practice to state the uncertainty of your measuring equipment (e.g. ± 1ml). Include chemicals in your list, their concentration and volumes / masses to be used.
Method State your variables, and how you will measure / control them: Independent variable. Dependent variable. Control variables.
Method Write out your intended procedure (like a recipe). Be sure to plan to take enough repeats to make your experiment reliable. Be sure to plan to collect relevant measurements.
Safety and Environmental Considerations Assess the risks and write down any precautions necessary. Write down any environmental issues that may arise from your experiement. Remember the basic lab rules (no need to write these down).
Recording raw data Record all data in a suitable table. Check table headers are clear, containing units and uncertainties. Give the table a number and a full title. Record your qualitative data.
Processing raw data This may include some of the following: Calculation of averages Calculation of standard deviation Other statistical analysis Production of a graph with a line of best fit. Production of a summary table.
Presenting processed data This means you present the data using the most appropriate graph(s). Graphs have correct title and labels. Graph labels include units and uncertainties. Error bars may be included.
Concluding Give a detailed description of your results, referring to your data and graphs. Explain your results with reference to cited sources (in a footnote).
Evaluating procedures Describe the factors that were weaknesses or limited the accuracy or scope of your investigation (try NOT to look incompetent). An evaluation describes how the mentioned weaknesses may have effected the results you recorded.
Improving the investigation Improvements need to be detailed and should relate to the weaknesses previously identified. Always suggest an increase in sample size (reliability). Always suggest an increase in the range of your independent variable (trends).
Present a professional document Title page containing your information. Set up your document with appropriate headers and footers. Contents page, with page numbers. Break your document up into numbered sub- sections
Present a professional document Tables with titles (Table 1. Title….) Graphs with titles (Figure 1. Title….) References: List your sources (from your footnotes) in alphabetical order, by author’s surname, use the Oxford referencing system.