2 5 Themes of Geography in China Located in the east under Russia and above VietnamNatural barriers isolate China from the rest of the worldThe landscape is mostly mountains and plateaus in the west and lower lands in the eastLocation Region
3 Human Environment Interaction Outer China is sparsely populatedAgriculture China is where most people liveUnder Communist rule, the government (gov.) moved people to collective farms to produce more goodsChinese population: 1 billion +++ (most are farmers, but only 4% of the land can be cultivated)
4 Population FactsIn 1980, China passed a “one-couple, one-child” lawLargest ethnic group is the Han
5 Place: What is the culture of China? Confucianism Major religionsBelief in strong morals and consequencesInfluenced much of the behavior of the ChineseBuddhism (taught by Guatama Buddha, suffering is part of a cycle of life in which one day you reach Nirvana)Taoism (action by inaction; harmony with life
6 Buddhism Siddharta Gautama He was born rich, and deserted it to find personal peace or enlightenmentHe was called Buddha, meaning “enlightened one”Happiness is achieved by giving up worldly possessionsReincarnation—if you live a bad life, you’re reborn as animals or insects, etc.The cycle can be broken by reaching nirvanaBuddhism founder Buddhism beliefs
7 Paper and Printing Invented by Chinese in 105 B.C. from silk rags Mass produced during Han dynastyWoodblock printing came along in 9th century—very similar to printing pressInvented moveable type (Song dynasty)There are over 80,000 characters in ChinesePaper
8 Other inventions Chinese inventions Compass Gunpowder Wheelbarrow ChopsticksTea drinkingkites
9 Movement: Dynasties The order of the major players Shang ( B.C.)—first written historyZhou ( B.C.)—first philosophers and interest in culture; LONGEST dynastyWarring States Period (no one group ruled) ( B.C.Qin ( B.C.) Shi-Huangdi becomes China’s first emperor. He orders building of the Great WallHan ( A.D.) Trade with Europe begins via the Silk Route begins. Paper is invented in 105 A.D.
10 More dynastiesThree Kingdoms ( A.D.) China splits into separate states. Buddhism spreads across ChinaSui Dynasty ( A.D.) China is reunited as a country; the Grand Canal makes it easier to travel around ChinaTang ( ) Literature and the arts flourishSong ( ) Landscape painting, poetry, and calligraphy flourish. Mongols gain control of all China. Printing and gunpowder are invented.
11 Last bit of dynasties…Yuan ( ) Marco Polo visits China b/w A.DMing ( ) This period is known for its porcelain, architecture, and popular literature
12 The Silk Road Mongols authority From Mongols ruled China, thus allowing merchants to trade freely throughout the GIANT empireSilk was the major export out of China, and it was the only place it could be found due to its secret processCamels were the mode of transportation (as they could survive harsh conditions—lack of water…)
13 Marco PoloMarco PoloTraveled the Silk Road during the Yuan’s dynasty.He was a favorite of Kublai Khan’s and served as an official in his gov. for 20 yearsWrote a book about his travels called Travels of Marco Polo in which he told of the fabulous wealth of the Chinese